Helicobacter pylori virulence and genetic geography.

@article{Covacci1999HelicobacterPV,
  title={Helicobacter pylori virulence and genetic geography.},
  author={Antonello Covacci and John L. Telford and Giuseppe Del Giudice and Julie Parsonnet and Roberto Rappuoli},
  journal={Science},
  year={1999},
  volume={284 5418},
  pages={
          1328-33
        }
}
Isolated for the first time in 1982 from human gastric biopsy, Helicobacter pylori is responsible for gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. A pathogenicity island acquired by horizontal transfer, coding for a type IV secretion system, is a major determinant of virulence. The infection is now treated with antibiotics, and vaccines are in preparation. The geographic distribution suggests coevolution of man and Helicobacter pylori. 
Diversity of vacA and cagA genes of Helicobacter pylori in Japanese children
TLDR
This work has shown that H. pylori infection with the type I strain, which expresses the VacA and CagA antigen, is associated with peptic ulcer and this work aims to establish a causative mechanism behind this association.
Helicobacter pylori virulence and the diversity of gastric cancer in Asia.
TLDR
The possible link between the geographical distribution of cagPAI and cagA variations and gastric cancer diversity in Asia is discussed and the molecular mechanism through which CagA may be involved in gastric carcinogenesis is discussed.
Pharmacotherapy of Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis
TLDR
Prevalence rates are much higher in developing countries and generally vary by geographical location, ethnic race, socio-economic conditions, and age.
Helicobacter pylori virulence factors in gastric carcinogenesis.
Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin, VacA.
TLDR
Strains isolated from patients contain the cagA gene (cytotoxin-associated gene A) and produce the vacuolating cytotoxin, VacA, which contributes to gastric injury caused by H. pylori infection.
Virulence Factors of Helicobacter pylori: A Review
TLDR
There are important H. pylori virulence factors that, along with host characteristics and the external environment, have been associated with the different occurrences of diseases and possible associations with the clinical outcome.
Virulence Genes in Helicobacter pylori Strains from West Bengal Residents with Overt H. pylori-Associated Disease and Healthy Volunteers
TLDR
Putative molecular markers of virulence (vacA, cagA, and iceA) of Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from 52 adult duodenal ulcer patients from West Bengal, India, are compared and it is concluded that there are geographic variations in the association of certain putative H.pylori virulence genes with clinical status.
Helicobacter pylori and upper gastrointestinal diseases: A review
TLDR
The principal characteristics of the diseases associated with H. pylori infection are brought and some important characteristics concerning the virulence of bacterium strain, host genetics and external environment are summarized.
Study of the Expression of Helicobacter Pylori Urei Gene by RT-PCR
TLDR
The aim of present study was to produce ureI gene construct and evaluation of the expression of urease in Helicobacter pylori to produce an effective vaccine against this bacteria.
SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatase and the Helicobacter pylori virulence factor CagA
TLDR
In developed countries H. pylori infection is thought to increase the risk of gastric carcinoma by at least 6-fold, and the World Health Organization has defined it as a group I carcinogen.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 82 REFERENCES
Gene structure of the Helicobacter pylori cytotoxin and evidence of its key role in gastric disease
TLDR
The cloning of the cytotoxin gene and the development of a mouse model of human gastric disease will provide the basis for the understanding of H. pylori pathogenesis and theDevelopment of therapeutics and vaccines.
Proteins Encoded by the cagPathogenicity Island of Helicobacter pylori Are Required for NF-κB Activation
TLDR
It is shown that NF-κB induction requires six membrane proteins encoded within the pathogenicity island, which indicates that H. pylori-mediated IL-8 secretion requires activation of the transcription factor NF-KKB.
Helicobacter pylori adhesin binding fucosylated histo-blood group antigens revealed by retagging.
TLDR
The bacterial Leb-binding phenotype was associated with the presence of the cag pathogenicity island among clinical isolates of H. pylori, suggesting that a vaccine strategy based on the BabA adhesin might serve as a means to target the virulent type I strains of the bacterium.
Development of a mouse model of Helicobacter pylori infection that mimics human disease
TLDR
This mouse model will allow the development of therapeutic agents and vaccines against H. pylori infection in humans, and oral immunization with purified H.pylori antigens protected mice from bacterial infection.
Heterogeneous Helicobacter pylori isolates from members of a family with a history of peptic ulcer disease.
TLDR
Genotypic comparison of H. pylori isolated from different patients requires analysis of multiple colonies selected from the primary culture plate, which is consistent with the observed association between cagA positivity and PUD.
Free recombination within Helicobacter pylori.
TLDR
Sequences of three gene fragments from Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from patients in Germany, Canada, and South Africa were analyzed for diversity and for linkage equilibrium by using the Homoplasy Test and compatibility matrices, indicating that H. pylory is panmictic.
...
...