Helicobacter pylori toxin VacA is transferred to host cells via a novel contact-dependent mechanism.

@article{Ilver2004HelicobacterPT,
  title={Helicobacter pylori toxin VacA is transferred to host cells via a novel contact-dependent mechanism.},
  author={Dag Ilver and Silvia Barone and David Mercati and Pietro Lupetti and John L. Telford},
  journal={Cellular microbiology},
  year={2004},
  volume={6 2},
  pages={167-74}
}
Helicobacter pylori is the causative agent of peptic ulcer disease. A major virulence factor of H. pylori is VacA, a toxin that causes massive vacuolization of epithelial cell lines in vitro and gastric epithelial erosion in vivo. Although VacA is exported over the outer membrane and is released from the bacteria, a portion of the toxin remains associated with the bacterial surface. We have found surface-associated toxin to be biologically active and spatially organized into distinct toxin-rich… CONTINUE READING

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