Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is the most common chronic bacterial infection in the world and the etiological agent for most gastric cancer (GC). Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a potent proinflammatory cytokine, and its deregulation is closely associated with the tumorigenesis of several cancers. Recent studies have revealed that the IL-1β-31 and -511T alleles are closely associated with gastric carcinogenesis due to their roles in the induction of gastric precancerous lesions and hypochlorhydria. Furthermore, H. pylori infection has a synergistic effect on the development of GC with IL-1β gene polymorphisms, and the highest prevalence of severe gastric abnormalities are found in patients with both host and bacterial high-risk genotypes (cagA(+)/vacAs1(+)/IL-1β-511T). Therefore, these recent advances demonstrate that H. pylori synergistic with IL-1β gene polymorphisms contribute to the gastric carcinogenesis by their involvement in precancerous gastric lesions and low gastric acid secretion.