Heavy Metal Poisoning and its Laboratory Investigation

@article{Baldwin1999HeavyMP,
  title={Heavy Metal Poisoning and its Laboratory Investigation},
  author={D. Baldwin and W. Marshall},
  journal={Annals of Clinical Biochemistry},
  year={1999},
  volume={36},
  pages={267 - 300}
}
The term `heavy metal' is, in this context, imprecise. It should probably be reserved for those elements with an atomic mass of 200 or greater [e.g., mercury (200), thallium (204), lead (207), bismuth (209) and the thorium series]. In practice, the term has come to embrace any metal, exposure to which is clinically undesirable and which constitutes a potential hazard. Our intention in this review is to provide an overview of some general concepts of metal toxicology and to discuss in detail… Expand
Lead poisoning: case studies.
TLDR
Early clinical features of lead toxicity are non-specific and an occupational history is particularly valuable, and sodium calciumedetate should be given with dimercaprol to treat lead encephalopathy. Expand
Lead in Plants and the Environment
Lead (Pb) is an element which is found in nature where out of its known 49 isotopes the most abundant are four: 208Pb (52%), 206Pb (24%), 207Pb (22%) and 204Pb (less than 2%). The increasedExpand
Toxicity of Environmental Lead and the Influence of Intestinal Absorption in Children
TLDR
This review brings together the more recent findings on the physiological mechanisms of metal absorption, especially lead, and examines several models that can be useful in assessing the potential for metal uptake in children. Expand
Levels of Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, Manganese and Zinc in Biological Samples of Paralysed Steel Mill Workers with Related to Controls
TLDR
The results indicate that the level understudy elements in all three biological samples were significantly higher in paralysed workers of both groups (quality control and production) as compared to referents (p < 0.01). Expand
IMPACT OF TOXIC METALS LEADING TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
Mining, manufacturing, and the use of synthetic products (e.g. pesticides, paints, batteries, industrial waste etc) can result in heavy metal contamination of urban and agricultural soils. TheExpand
Emerging Contaminants
Arsenic, a dangerous bio-accumulative poison, is a grave threat affecting a large number of people as well as animals throughout the World, particularly in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. It isExpand
Respiratory Diseases Due to Occupational Exposure to Nickel and Chromium among Factory Workers in Kenya
TLDR
A study was conducted on production workers from six different types industrial plants, to investigate the influence of Ni and Cr exposure on their respiratory systems and recommend comprehensive assessment of Cr and Ni in related industries with significant exposures. Expand
Evaluation of toxic metals in biological samples (scalp hair, blood and urine) of steel mill workers by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry
TLDR
The results indicate that the level of lead, cadmium and nickel in scalp hair, blood and urine samples were significantly higher in both groups of exposed workers (QW and PW) than those of the controls, showing the need for immediate improvements in workplace ventilation and industrial hygiene practices. Expand
Determination of Hair and Ser u m Metal Levels in Petrol Station Workers Petrol
The aim of this study is to determine some metals in hair and serum samples of petrol station workers. A total of 50 petrol station workers (exposure group) and 50 office workers (control group) wereExpand
Study of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb & Zn) in some medicinal plant species (Hertia intermedia, Cardaria chalepense, Scorzonera ammophila, Tamarix karelini, Astragalus auganus) at Pishin area in Balochistan, Pakistan
TLDR
Five of the most prevalent commonly used therapeutic plants of Pishin area are studied by atomic absorption spectrometry for their heavy element concentrations and all these plants have low heavy metal concentrations according to the standards of international safety for human consumption. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 196 REFERENCES
Lead Toxicity: Problems of Definition and Laboratory
TLDR
The background to the previous and current concerns regarding lead toxicity is presented, appropriate laboratory investigations are discussed and appropriate laboratory Investigations are discussed. Expand
CANCER MORTALITY AMONG CADMIUM PRODUCTION WORKERS
TLDR
Cadmium is a classic example of a ubiquitous trace element with an increasing exposure to industrial and general populations with the conclusiveness of the carcinogenic effects of cadmium by injection in experimental and because of the spectrum of nonmalignant and malignant respiratory, renal, prostatic, and other chronic effects produced by occupational exposures. Expand
Is cadmium a human carcinogen?
TLDR
It is not possible at present to attribute the excess mortality from lung cancer to cadmium owing to the presence of multiple confounding factors in the populations studied, but some evidence of this risk also being associated with exposure to arsenic is shown. Expand
Cadmium: exposure markers as predictors of nephrotoxic effects.
TLDR
A biological limit value for Cd of 5 and 2 nmol/mmol creatine for adult male workers and the general population, respectively is proposed. Expand
The determination of metals (antimony, bismuth, lead, cadmium, mercury, palladium, platinum, tellurium, thallium, tin and tungsten) in urine samples by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry
TLDR
For some metals, which are important from an occupational as well as an environmental viewpoint, ICP-MS is more sensitive than atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), and is welcome as a reference method for AAS with the additional advantage of multi-element measurement. Expand
Thallium poisoning. Diagnosis may be elusive but alopecia is the clue.
Thallium is a heavy metal whose salts are used in some rodent poisons and in the manufacture of optical lenses, semiconductors, scintillation counters, low temperature thermometers, and switchingExpand
Cadmium and health: the Belgian experience.
TLDR
The results of a large-scale cross-sectional study suggest that subclinical changes in tubular function may occur in the general population above a threshold of urinary cadmium as low as 2 micrograms/24h. Expand
Analytical Techniques for Blood-Lead Measurements
The three general aspects of clinical toxicology in which blood-lead analyses are important are: the diagnosis of lead poisoning; the control of the health of industrial workers handling lead and/orExpand
In vivo measurement of liver and kidney cadmium in workers exposed to this metal: its significance with respect to cadmium in blood and urine.
TLDR
It has been found that kidney dysfunction is likely to develop in workers with CdL between 30 and 60 ppm and that almost all the Cd workers above 60 ppm evidence renal dysfunction, and there exists a range of critical CdKc levels, i.e., approximately from 160 to 285 ppm. Expand
Lead poisoning from Asian traditional remedies in the West Midlands - report of a series of five cases
TLDR
The present morbidity from traditional remedies may be far greater than is realised, and will continue until such time as the supply of harmful preparations can be effec tively limited. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...