Heating and Cooling Protostellar Disks

  title={Heating and Cooling Protostellar Disks},
  author={Shigenobu Hirose and N. J. Turner},
  journal={arXiv: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics},
We examine heating and cooling in protostellar disks using 3-D radiation-MHD calculations of a patch of the Solar nebula at 1 AU, employing the shearing-box and flux-limited radiation diffusion approximations. The disk atmosphere is ionized by stellar X-rays, well-coupled to magnetic fields, and sustains a turbulent accretion flow driven by magneto-rotational instability, while the interior is resistive and magnetically dead. The turbulent layers heat by absorbing the light from the central… Expand

Figures from this paper

Temperature Structure in the Inner Regions of Protoplanetary Disks: Inefficient Accretion Heating Controlled by Nonideal Magnetohydrodynamics
Gas temperature in protoplanetary disks (PPDs) is determined by a combination of irradiation heating and accretion heating, with the latter conventionally attributed to turbulent dissipation.Expand
Radiation Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of the Formation of Hot Accretion Disk Coronae
A new mechanism to form a magnetic pressure supported, high temperature corona above the photosphere of an accretion disk is explored using three dimensional radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)Expand
Magnetic turbulence and thermodynamics in the inner region of protoplanetary discs
Using radiation magnetohydrodynamics simulations with realistic opacities and equation of state, and zero net magnetic flux, we have explored thermodynamics in the inner part of protoplanetary discsExpand
FUV Irradiation and the Heat Signature of Accretion in Protoplanetary Disk Atmospheres
Although stars accrete mass throughout the first few Myr of their lives, the physical mechanism that drives disk accretion in the T Tauri phase is uncertain, and diagnostics that probe the nature ofExpand
Driving Disk Winds and Heating Hot Coronae by MRI Turbulence
We investigate the formation of hot coronae and vertical outflows in accretion disks by magnetorotational turbulence. We perform local three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations withExpand
The magnetorotational instability (MRI) drives magnetized turbulence in sufficiently ionized regions of protoplanetary disks, leading to mass accretion. The dissipation of the potential energyExpand
Warm and optically thick dissipative coronae above accretion disks
In the past years, several observations of AGN and X-ray binaries have suggested the existence of a warm T around 0.5-1 keV and optically thick, \tau ~ 10-20, corona covering the inner parts of theExpand
3D Radiation Nonideal Magnetohydrodynamical Simulations of the Inner Rim in Protoplanetary Disks
Many planets orbit within an AU of their stars, raising questions about their origins. Particularly puzzling are the planets found near the silicate sublimation front. We investigate conditions nearExpand
Magnetic Coupling in the Disks Around Young Gas Giant Planets
We examine the conditions under which the disks of gas and dust orbiting young gas giant planets are sufficiently conducting to experience turbulence driven by the magneto-rotational instability. ByExpand
Wind-driven Accretion in Protoplanetary Disks. I. Suppression of the Magnetorotational Instability and Launching of the Magnetocentrifugal Wind
We perform local, vertically stratified shearing-box MHD simulations of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) at a fiducial radius of 1 AU that take into account the effects of both Ohmic resistivity andExpand


Turbulent Mixing and the Dead Zone in Protostellar Disks
We investigate the conditions for the presence of a magnetically inactive dead zone in protostellar disks using three-dimensional shearing-box MHD calculations, including vertical stratification,Expand
Dead Zone Accretion Flows in Protostellar Disks
Planets form inside protostellar disks in a dead zone where the electrical resistivity of the gas is too high for magnetic forces to drive turbulence. We show that much of the dead zone neverthelessExpand
Accretion Disks around Young Objects. I. The Detailed Vertical Structure
We discuss the properties of an accretion disk around a star with parameters typical of classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs) and with the average accretion rate for these disks. The disk is assumed steadyExpand
Heat and Dust in Active Layers of Protostellar Disks
Requirements for magnetic coupling and accretion in the active layer of a protostellar disk are re-examined, and some implications for thermal emission from the layer are discussed. The ionizationExpand
Vertical Structure of Gas Pressure-dominated Accretion Disks with Local Dissipation of Turbulence and Radiative Transport
We calculate the vertical structure of a local patch of an accretion disk in which heating by dissipation of MRI-driven MHD turbulence is balanced by radiative cooling. Heating, radiative transport,Expand
Radiation-Dominated Disks are Thermally Stable
When the accretion rate is more than a small fraction of Eddington, the inner regions of accretion disks around black holes are expected to be radiation dominated. However, in the α-model, theseExpand
Surface Structure in an Accretion Disk Annulus with Comparable Radiation and Gas Pressure
We have employed a three-dimensional energy-conserving radiation MHD code to simulate the vertical structure and thermodynamics of a shearing box whose parameters were chosen so that the radiationExpand
Vertical Structure and Turbulent Saturation Level in Fully Radiative Protoplanetary Disc Models
We investigate a massive (Σ ~ 10 000 g cm -2 at 1 au) protoplanetary disc model by means of 3D radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The vertical structure of the disc is determinedExpand
We extend the analysis of axisymmetric magnetic shear instabilities from ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows to weakly ionized plasmas with coupling between ions and neutrals caused by collisions,Expand
Heating Protoplanetary Disk Atmospheres
We calculate the thermal-chemical structure of the gaseous atmospheres of the inner disks of T Tauri stars, starting from the density and dust temperature distributions derived by D’Alessio andExpand