Heat transfer augmentation through convergence angles in a pipe

  title={Heat transfer augmentation through convergence angles in a pipe},
  author={Ahmed T. Al-Sammarraie and Kambiz Vafai},
  journal={Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A: Applications},
  pages={197 - 214}
ABSTRACT Forced convection in a combined entry developing length of a convergent pipe under constant wall heat flux boundary condition is performed in this work. Influences of the convergence angle, Reynolds, and Prandtl numbers on the heat transfer and flow field have been investigated. The numerical results are obtained for a wide range of convergence angles (0°–25°), Reynolds numbers (700–2100), and Prandtl numbers (0.707, 5.83). Compared to a traditional pipe, a substantial increase in heat… 
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