Effector-activated immune responses in potato and tobacco cell cultures caused by phytopathogen Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus
The heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) family mediates stress signal transduction, and plays important roles in the control of normal growth of human cells and in promoting development of tumor cells. Hsp90s have become a currently important subject in cellular immunity, signal transduction, and anti-cancer research. Studies on the physiological functions of Hsp90s began much later in plants than in animals and fungi. Significant progress has been made in understanding complex mechanisms of HSP90s in plants, including ATPase-coupled conformational changes and interactions with cochaperone proteins. A wide range of signaling proteins interact with HSP90s. Recent studies revealed that plant Hsp90s are important in plant development, environmental stress response, and disease and pest resistance. In this study, the plant HSP90 family was classified into three clusters on the basis of phylogenetic relationships, gene structure, and biological functions. We discuss the molecular functions of Hsp90s, and systematically review recent progress of Hsp90 research in plants.