We have performed heart-lung transplantation in 10 children for the preoperative diagnoses of primary pulmonary hypertension (4), complex congenital heart disease with pulmonary hypertension (4), pulmonary atresia (1), and cystic fibrosis (1). Ages ranged from 4 months to 18 years. There were 15 episodes of pulmonary rejection, with an occurrence rate of 1.67 episodes per patient. Pulmonary infections occurred frequently, with an occurrence rate of 3.3 episodes per patient. The actuarial survival rate at 1 and 2 years was 78% and 47%, respectively. Patient attrition between 1 and 2 years was attributable to the complications of obliterative bronchiolitis, which has effected 71% (5/7) of the long-term survivors. Four of the 5 surviving children have minimal physical limitation and are in functional class I. These data support continued investigation into heart-lung transplantation in children and set the stage for further program development into single-lung transplantation in children.