Hearing lips and seeing voices

@article{McGurk1976HearingLA,
  title={Hearing lips and seeing voices},
  author={Harry McGurk and John MacDonald},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1976},
  volume={264},
  pages={746-748}
}
MOST verbal communication occurs in contexts where the listener can see the speaker as well as hear him. However, speech perception is normally regarded as a purely auditory process. The study reported here demonstrates a previously unrecognised influence of vision upon speech perception. It stems from an observation that, on being shown a film of a young woman's talking head, in which repeated utterances of the syllable [ba] had been dubbed on to lip movements for [ga], normal adults reported… 
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  • 2014
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The results demonstrate that the difficulties with speech perception by SLI children extend beyond the auditory-only modality to include auditory-visual processing as well.
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In the literature on cross-modal perception, there are two important findings that most researchers in this area will know about, although only few have ever made a connection between the two. The
Seeing and hearing others and oneself talk.
Research report Seeing and hearing others and oneself talk
We studied the modification of auditory perception in three different conditions in twenty subjects. Observing other person’s discordant articulatory gestures deteriorated identification of acoustic
Hearing Faces: How the Infant Brain Matches the Face It Sees with the Speech It Hears
TLDR
It is determined that auditory–visual integration occurs during the early stages of perception as in adults, and brain source modeling revealed that phoneme and gender computations were lateralized toward the left and toward the right hemisphere, respectively, suggesting that each hemisphere possesses an early processing bias.
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