Quality of life in a community sample of young cocaine and/or heroin users: the role of mental disorders
The aim of this study was to characterize the health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) and functioning in 90 bipolar I remitted outpatients. According to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV remission specifiers, patients were categorized into 4 groups: group 1, fully remitted; group 2, less than 2 months remitted; group 3, with persisting manic symptoms; group 4, with persisting depressive symptoms. The severity of psychopathology was evaluated by using the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania-Melancholia Scale. The HR-QOL, functioning, and insight were assessed via the medical outcomes study 36-item short form, the global assessment of functioning scale, and the scale to assess unawareness of mental disorder, respectively. Fully remitted patients reported the highest scores in almost all domains of medical outcomes study 36-item short form, and had significantly higher scores on physical functioning, general health, social functioning, and mental health compared to patients with persisting depressive symptoms. Furthermore, patients with persisting manic symptoms reported significantly higher scores on general health, vitality and mental health than the group with persisting depressive symptoms. In contrast, the global assessment of functioning scale score differed among the 4 groups, with fully remitted patients reporting higher, although not statistically significant, scores than the other groups. Our data suggest that the persistence of depressive or manic symptoms seem to affect self-report measures of HR-QOL. An affectively biased cognition may explain the gap between patient's perception of functioning and estimated functional adjustment, as assessed by clinicians.