This pilot study used medical records to examine the health outcomes of children receiving care in Medicaid's Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) program. Medical records from 76 children seen for EPSDT visits during a 6-month period were reviewed to assess whether health problems were identified and whether treatment, follow-up, or referral care was provided. Health problems were identified for 43% of the children; 22% received treatment, and 18% were referred for specialty care. Checkups uncovered fewer problems than would be expected in a poor, largely minority population. Almost one third of the children referred for specialty care apparently did not receive such care. The study verified the need for further research and provides direction for future study.