Health effects of vegetarian and vegan diets

@article{Key2006HealthEO,
  title={Health effects of vegetarian and vegan diets},
  author={Timothy J. Key and Paul N. Appleby and Magdalena Rosell},
  journal={Proceedings of the Nutrition Society},
  year={2006},
  volume={65},
  pages={35 - 41}
}
Vegetarian diets do not contain meat, poultry or fish; vegan diets further exclude dairy products and eggs. Vegetarian and vegan diets can vary widely, but the empirical evidence largely relates to the nutritional content and health effects of the average diet of well-educated vegetarians living in Western countries, together with some information on vegetarians in non-Western countries. In general, vegetarian diets provide relatively large amounts of cereals, pulses, nuts, fruits and… 
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    The American journal of clinical nutrition
  • 2009
TLDR
A vegetarian diet is associated with many health benefits because of its higher content of fiber, folic acid, vitamins C and E, potassium, magnesium, and many phytochemicals and a fat content that is more unsaturated.
Nutrition concerns and health effects of vegetarian diets.
  • W. Craig
  • Medicine
    Nutrition in clinical practice : official publication of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
  • 2010
TLDR
A vegetarian diet usually provides a low intake of saturated fat and cholesterol and a high intake of dietary fiber and many health-promoting phytochemicals, and typically has lower body mass index, serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and blood pressure.
Health effects of vegan diets 1-3
Recently, vegetarian diets have experienced an increase in popularity. Avegetarian diet is associated with many health benefits because of its higher content offiber, folic acid, vitamins C and E,
NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF SUBJECTS WITH DOMINANT PLANT FOOD CONSUMPTION
TLDR
The results of favourable values of cardiovascular risk markers and antioxidants document a beneficial effect of vegetarian nutrition in prevention of degenerative age-related diseases.
The long-term health of vegetarians and vegans
TLDR
The long-term health of vegetarians appears to be generally good, and for some diseases and medical conditions it may be better than that of comparable omnivores.
Vegetarian Diet and Effects of Vegetarian Nutrition on Health
TLDR
A vegetarian diet usually provides lower body mass index, serum total and cholesterol levels, and blood pressure; reduced heart disease, hypertension, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and certain cancers; however, vegetarians should take adequate amounts of vit B12, vit D, ω-3 fatty acids, calcium, iron, and zinc due to the nutritional deficiencies in order to improve health and reduce the risk of some chronic diseases.
Vegetarian diets, low-meat diets and health: a review
TLDR
Evidence linking red meat intake, particularly processed meat, and increased risk of CHD, cancer and type 2 diabetes is convincing and provides indirect support for consumption of a plant-based diet.
POSSIBLE HEALTH RISKS IN SUBJECTS WITH DOMINANT PLANT FOOD CONSUMPTION
TLDR
The findings suggest that limited consumption of animal food and dominant consumption of plant food can be connected with possible health risks (higher incidence of deficient values of vitamin B12, vitamin D, iron and long-chain n-3 fatty acids).
Vegan Diet, Subnormal Vitamin B-12 Status and Cardiovascular Health
TLDR
Vascular studies have demonstrated impaired arterial endothelial function and increased carotid intima-media thickness as atherosclerosis surrogates in Hong Kong vegans and in underprivileged communities in northern rural China, but not in lactovegetarians in China.
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