Health effects of Monochloramines in drinking water

  title={Health effects of Monochloramines in drinking water},
  author={Gary S. Moore and Edward J. Calabrese and Michael K. McGee},
  journal={Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A-toxic\/hazardous Substances \& Environmental Engineering},
Abstract The use of chloranine as a disinfecting process for drinking water is widely practiced in the United States. Although exposure of humans to chloramines in drinking water via renal dialysis produces marked changes in blood parameters including hemolysis, no studies on effects of orally administered chloramines have been published. This study examined the effects of a 30 day exposure of monochloramine in drinking water in doses ranging from 2.5 to 200 ppm on the blood characteristics of… 
Inorganic chloramines: a critical review of the toxicological and epidemiological evidence as a basis for occupational exposure limit setting
The toxicological data for mono- and dichloramine are insufficient to recommend health-based occupational exposure limits (OELs), and trichloramine, the critical effect is judged to be irritation observed in several studies on pool workers, is judged.
Inorganic Chloramines as Drinking Water Disinfectants: A Review
Although chloramines have been used to disinfect drinking water in the United States for more than 66 years, interest in these disinfectants has recently increased with the discovery that much lower
Comparative Subchronic Toxicity of Chlorine and Monochloramine in the B6C3F1 Mouse
Overall, the correlation of the biochemical, hematological, and organ weight data, in the absence of histopathology and observable clinical signs of toxicity, suggests that the chlorine and monochloramine induced effects via an indirect mechanism, e.g., nutritional deficiencies, rather than a direct toxicological effect on specific organs or tissues.
Water disinfection: A review with some consideration of the requirements of the third world
Of these water disinfectarits, it is chlorine, employed at perhaps 99% of water treatment works, which is the principal agent of success, and can be totally effective for the destruction of waterborne pathogenic microorganisms without creating other hazards to public health.


The Use of Chloramine for Reduction of Trihalomethanes and Disinfection of Drinking Water
On Feb. 9, 1978, the administrator of the US Environmental Protection Agency proposed amendments to the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations for the control of organic substances in
Chlorinated Urban Water: A Cause of Dialysis-Induced Hemolytic Anemia
Chloramines, which are oxidant compounds made up of chlorine and ammonia and are widely used as bactericidal agents in urban water supplies, have been found responsible for two recent epidemics of acute hemolytic anemia characterized by Heinz bodies.
Chloramines, an aggravating factor in the anemia of patients on regular dialysis treatment.
Ascorbic acid added to the dialysate at a concentration of 1.7 mg/dl produced a great improvement in the anaemia and the almost total disappearance of Heinz bodies from the patients' red cells.
Haloforms in Drinking Water
final product, either by reducing the precursor before chlorination or by removing once-formed haloforms by additional treatment steps. When fulvic acids, or yellow acids, imparting natural color to
Comparative Disinfection Methods
thella Typhosa to Chlorine and Chloramines. Public Health Rprt., 59:1661 (1944). 3. Durfor, C. N. & Becker, E. Public Water Supplies of the 100 Largest Cities in the United States. USGS Water Supply
Ohio drinking water source and cancer rates.
Differences in mortality rates were not attributable to other factors known to be associated with cancer death rates including urbanization, median income, population size, manufacturing activity, and agriculture-forestry-fishery activity.
A sensitive micromethod for the determination of methemoglobin in blood.