Health benefits of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)

@article{Horrocks1999HealthBO,
  title={Health benefits of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)},
  author={Lloyd A. Horrocks and Young Keun Yeo},
  journal={Pharmacological research},
  year={1999},
  volume={40 3},
  pages={
          211-25
        }
}
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is essential for the growth and functional development of the brain in infants. DHA is also required for maintenance of normal brain function in adults. The inclusion of plentiful DHA in the diet improves learning ability, whereas deficiencies of DHA are associated with deficits in learning. DHA is taken up by the brain in preference to other fatty acids. The turnover of DHA in the brain is very fast, more so than is generally realized. The visual acuity of healthy… 

Tables from this paper

DHA AS A HEALTH SUPPLEMENT: A REVIEW
TLDR
This review focuses on the role of DHA in prenatal, lactating women, infants or growing children and other vital diseases, and discusses the therapeutic uses, metabolic pathway, adverse effect, and its interactions with other drugs.
Maternal Docosahexaenoic Acid Status during Pregnancy and Its Impact on Infant Neurodevelopment
TLDR
DHA’s multiple roles during gestation, lactation, and the consequences of its lower intake during pregnancy and postnatally on the brain development and function are described.
Improvement Effect of Docosahexaenoic Acid on Neurological Function and Its Application to Neurological Disorders
TLDR
Dietary administration of DHA improves lost learning ability in animals, and protects against and ameliorates the impairment oflearning ability in AD model rats and mice.
An update on adding docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) to baby formula.
TLDR
Current research and scientific evidence of DHA and AA on baby development shows desirable influences on visual and cognitive development in early life and is additionally associated with potential benefits on later health.
Neuroprotective effect of docosahexaenoic acid-enriched phospholipids in experimental diabetic neuropathy.
TLDR
DHA phospholipids totally prevented the decrease in NCV and NBF observed during diabetes when compared with the nonsupplemented diabetic group, and could be suitable for evaluation in clinical trials.
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content of membranes determines molecular activity of the sodium pump: implications for disease states and metabolism
TLDR
A high positive correlation between the molecular activity (ATP min−1) of individual Na+K+ATPase units and the content of DHA in the surrounding membrane bilayer is reported, which represents a fundamental relationship underlying metabolic activity, but may also represent a link between reduced levels of D HA and neurological dysfunction.
Developmental docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid supplementation improves adult learning and increases resistance against excitotoxicity in the brain.
TLDR
It is concluded that LC-PUFA supplementation during fetal and early postnatal development results in long-term enhancement of spatial learning ability of the offspring and offers resistance against excitotoxic brain lesion which lasts up to the adult age.
Essential fatty acid supplementation of DHA and ARA and effects on neurodevelopment across animal species: a review of the literature.
TLDR
Animal literature does not support a clear long-term benefit of replenishing DHA/ARA tissue levels and administration of these fatty acids at concentrations above those in human milk suggests adverse effects on growth, survival, and neurodevelopment.
DHAid™ – The vegetarian source
TLDR
DHAid TM is a pure vegetarian source of omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) produced from microalgae in a controlled process in fermentation vessels by the Swiss life-science company Lonza, and is environmentally friendly.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 127 REFERENCES
Mechanisms of docosahexaenoic acid accretion in the fetal brain
TLDR
The fetal brain itself is capable of metabolizing LnA to DHA, without the participation of the fetal liver, thus contributing to the accumulation of its own DHA during one of the most crucial periods of its development.
MRI evidence that docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester improves myelination in generalized peroxisomal disorders
TLDR
It is found that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), an important constituent of the CNS and retina, is dramatically decreased in patients with generalized peroxisomal disorders, and the beneficial effects obtained indicate that DHA deficiency plays an important role in the pathogenesis of peroxISomal disease.
Are deficits of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids responsible for the neural and vascular complications of preterm babies?
TLDR
The conclusion drawn from this review is that present parenteral and enteral lipid nutrition for preterm babies is flawed and could be pathogenic.
Erythrocyte Docosahexaenoic Acid Correlates with the Visual Response of Healthy, Term Infants
TLDR
There is an urgent need to evaluate the dietary fatty acid supply of formula-fed term infants and the possibility that DHA status of healthy, term infants is also related to neuronal function of the visual pathway as assessed by visual-evoked potentials.
Age- and Dietary-Related Distributions of Hepatic Arachidonic and Docosahexaenoic Acid in Early Infancy
TLDR
A dietary-related deficiency of docosahexaenoic acid in infant cerebral cortex has been identified and coincident minimum levels were present in both formula groups in the third month of life, which may indicate that the hepatic enzymes involved in the final stage (A4-desaturation) conversion of α-linolenic acid to docosa hexaenosic acid could be inactive in the first months of life.
The effect of oral administration of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids on acute inflammation and fatty acid composition in rats.
TLDR
Effects of EPA and DHA might be explained by the reduced availability of AA for eicosanoid formation represented by the proportion of AA in the sum of highly unsaturated fatty acids.
Highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in humans have similar triacylglycerol-lowering effects but divergent effects on serum fatty acids.
TLDR
It is concluded that both DHA and EPA decrease serum triacylglycerols, but have differential effects on lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism in humans.
Effects of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on fatty acid absorption, incorporation into serum phospholipids and postprandial triglyceridemia
TLDR
There are metabolic differences between EPA and DHA which may have implications for the use of n−3 fatty acids in preventive and clinical medicine and prolonged intake of DHA is equivalent to or even more efficient than that of EPA in lowering postprandial triglyceridemia.
Changes in blood coagulation, platelet aggregation, and lipid metabolism in rats given lipids containing docosahexaenoic acid.
TLDR
It is proposed that the dietary intake of DHA should not be more than 0.56 in terms of the n-3/n-6 ratio, as shown by a detailed analysis on the lower limit level of the harmful parameters.
The cardiovascular protective role of docosahexaenoic acid.
...
...