Health and environmental safety aspects of friction grinding and spray drying of microfibrillated cellulose

  title={Health and environmental safety aspects of friction grinding and spray drying of microfibrillated cellulose},
  author={Jari Vartiainen and Tiina P{\"o}hler and Kristiina Sirola and Lea Pylkk{\"a}nen and Harri Alenius and Jouni Hokkinen and Unto Tapper and Panu Lahtinen and Anu Kapanen and Kaisa Putkisto and Panu Hiekkataipale and Paula Eronen and Janne Ruokolainen and Antti Laukkanen},
Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC), also referred to as nanocellulose, is one of the most promising innovations for forest sector. MFC is produced by fibrillating the fibres under high compression and shear forces. In this study we evaluated the worker exposures to particles in air during grinding and spray drying of birch cellulose. Processing of MFC with either a friction grinder or a spray dryer did not cause significant exposure to particles during normal operation. Grinding generated small… 


Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) is one of the most promising innovations for forest sector. NFC is produced by fibrillating the fibres under high compression and shear forces. In this study we

Nanofibrillated cellulose causes acute pulmonary inflammation that subsides within a month

The results demonstrate that one of the non-functionalized NFCs tested reduced cell viability and triggered pro-inflammatory reactions in vitro and in vivo, and this knowledge can be useful in the risk assessment of cellulose materials.

Translational study between structure and biological response of nanocellulose from wood and green algae

It is hypothesize that the distinct aligned nanofiber structure present in the TEMPO–CC films is responsible for the improved cell adhesion, and by controlling the surface properties of cellulose nanofibers, such as chemistry, charge, and orientation, cellAdhesion properties can be promoted.

Lung biodurability and free radical production of cellulose nanomaterials

The production of •OH radicals indicates the need for additional studies to characterize the potential inhalation hazards of cellulose, and is explained by the higher surface area to volume ratio of the CNCs.

Genotoxic and inflammatory effects of nanofibrillated cellulose in murine lungs

It was shown that NFC administered by pharyngeal aspiration caused an acute inflammatory response and DNA damage in the lungs, but no systemic genotoxic effect in the bone marrow.

In vitro biological responses to nanofibrillated cellulose by human dermal, lung and immune cells: surface chemistry aspect

The data presented here show the absence of cytotoxic effects associated with the exposure to unmodified, carboxymethylated and hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium-modified NFCs, and suggest that the inflammatory response to NFC might be driven by the material surface chemistry, and thus open up for the possibility of designing safe nanocellulose materials.

Life cycle assessment of cellulose nanofibrils production by mechanical treatment and two different pretreatment processes.

Assessing the cradle-to-gate environmental impacts of three production routes for a particular type of nanocellulose called cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) made from wood pulp showed that CNF produced via the carboxymethylation route clearly has the highest environmental impacts due to large use of solvents made from crude oil.

The effect of surface modifications with corona discharge in pinus and eucalyptus nanofibril films

The corona treatment is promising for the improvement of the quality of fabrics and composites, but there are only a few studies on its effectiveness for surface modification of nanofibril films for

Isolation and Characterization of Microfibrillated Cellulose from Agro-industrial Soybean Residue (Okara)

Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) was isolated from the byproduct of soymilk, tofu, and okara (soybean residue) using a chemi-mechanical technique. Initially, petroleum ether treatment at 50 °C for 8



Investigation of the durability of cellulose fibres in rat lungs

The goal of this investigation was to analyse quantitatively the biodurability of cellulose fibres in lungs of rats.

Chemical surface modifications of microfibrillated cellulose

Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) was prepared by disintegration of bleached softwood sulphite pulp through mechanical homogenization. The surface of the MFC was modified using different chemical

Strength and barrier properties of MFC films

The preparation of microfibrillar cellulose (MFC) films by filtration on a polyamide filter cloth, in a dynamic sheet former and as a surface layer on base paper is described. Experimental evidence

Preparation and characterization of water-redispersible nanofibrillated cellulose in powder form

Water-redispersible, nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) in powder form was prepared from refined, bleached beech pulp (RBP) by carboxymethylation (c) and mechanical disintegration (m). Two routes were

BC nanofibres: in vitro study of genotoxicity and cell proliferation.

Microfibrillated cellulose, a new cellulose product: properties, uses, and commercial potential

A new form of cellulose, which is expanded to a smooth gel when dispersed in polar liquids, is produced by a unique, rapid, physical treatment of wood cellulose pulps. A 2% suspension of

In vitro and In vivo Assessment of the Pulmonary Toxicity of Cellulose

The lung‐damaging effect of intratracheally administered cellulose was studied by biochemical and histological methods and contrary to the in vivo study, cellulose did not damage rat peritoneal macrophages.

Toxicity of intratracheally instilled cotton dust, cellulose, and endotoxin.

Data suggest that cotton dust produces a significant parenchymal lesion with elements similar to both the emphysematous response to endotoxin and the fibrotic nodular response to cellulose.

Biopersistence of man-made vitreous fibres.

A new bio-based nanocomposite: fibrillated TEMPO-oxidized celluloses in hydroxypropylcellulose matrix

Utilization of TEMPO-oxidized celluloses in bio-based nanocomposites is reported for the first time. TEMPO-oxidized wood pulps (net carboxylate content 1.1 mmol/g cellulose) were fibrillated to