Health Risks Associated with Inhaled Nasal Toxicants

  title={Health Risks Associated with Inhaled Nasal Toxicants},
  author={Victor J. Feron and Josje H. E. Arts and C Frieke Kuper and Pieter J. Slootweg and Ruud A. Woutersen},
  journal={Critical Reviews in Toxicology},
  pages={313 - 347}
Health risks of inhaled nasal toxicants were reviewed with emphasis on chemically induced nasal lesions in humans, sensory irritation, olfactory and trigeminal nerve toxicity, nasal immunopathology and carcino-genesis, nasal responses to chemical mixtures, in vitro models, and nasal dosimetry- and metabolism-based extrapolation of nasal data in animals to humans. Conspicuous findings in humans are the effects of outdoor air pollution on the nasal mucosa, and tobacco smoking as a risk factor for… 

13.15 – Olfactory System

Nasal Cytotoxic and Carcinogenic Activities of Systemically Distributed Organic Chemicals

Findings in only the rodent nasal mucosa do not necessarily predict either a toxic or carcinogenic hazard to that tissue in humans, and may reflect the lesser biotransformation activity of human nasal mucosal compared to rodent and the much lower levels of human exposures.


Diesel exhaust particles, encountered in urban areas, are thought to be contributing causal factors to the exaggerated sensitization to allergens in subjects with appropriate genetic predisposition, sensitization that they might not otherwise have experienced.

DNA Damage in Nasal and Brain Tissues of Canines Exposed to Air Pollutants Is Associated with Evidence of Chronic Brain Inflammation and Neurodegeneration

There was an acceleration of Alzheimer's-type pathology in dogs chronically exposed to air pollutants, suggesting that Alzheimer's disease may be the sequela of air pollutant exposures and the resulting systemic inflammation.

Acute airway effects of diacetyl in mice

High-level diacetyl exposures decreased the sensory irritation warning signal in mice upon repeated exposure, which suggests that the compound is especially insidious.

Association between atmospheric ozone levels and damage to human nasal mucosa in Florence, Italy

High levels of atmospheric ozone in Florence air correlated with DNA damage, and to the prevalence of inflammatory pathologies of the upper respiratory tract, although the ozone concentrations were below the Italian recommended attention level.

Comparative evaluation of the effects of short-term inhalation exposure to diesel engine exhaust on rat lung and brain

It is shown that a single, short-term inhalation exposure to DEE triggers region-specific gene expression changes in rat brain to an extent comparable to those observed in the lung.

Upper Respiratory Tract Lesions in Inhalation Toxicology

Some important differences in normal histology of the upper respiratory tract of laboratory animals are described and examples of lesions observed or reported, predominantly rodents, exposed via inhalation are provided.

Chemosensory Dysfunction Induced by Environmental Pollutants and Its Potential As a Novel Neurotoxicological Indicator: A Review.

Although the existing evidence is not overwhelming, the chemosensory system is expected to be a useful indicator in neurotoxicology and neural diseases based on accumulating studies that continually excavate the deep link between chemos Sensory dysfunction and neurodegenerative diseases.



Nasal toxicity and dosimetry of inhaled xenobiotics: implications for human health.

  • G. Boorman
  • Medicine
    Environmental health perspectives
  • 1994
The authors' Upper Airways and Their Ambient Air: A Historical Perspective Research Strategy for Assessing Human Risk from Inhaled Nasal Toxicants and Implications for Human Health and Exposure Limits.

A brief review of formaldehyde carcinogenesis in relation to rat nasal pathology and human health risk assessment.

  • K. Morgan
  • Medicine, Biology
    Toxicologic pathology
  • 1997
The 1980 report that inhaled formaldehyde induced nasal squamous cell carcinomas in rats had a significant societal impact and resulted in extensive research in the fields of rodent nasal pathology

Histopathology of Nasal Olfactory Mucosa from Selected Inhalation Toxicity Studies Conducted with Volatile Chemicals

The results indicated that the distribution and nature of the lesions were similar in all the examined studies in which olfactory changes were observed and a uniform method for scoring lesion severity based on the extent of distribution and severity of tissue damage are presented.

Review Article: A Brief Review of Formaldehyde Carcinogenesis in Relation to Rat Nasal Pathology and Human Health Risk Assessment

It is concluded that the nasal passages of humans and rats are fundamentally identical biological target organs, Nevertheless, in the case of human health risk assessment, minor differences between these species may be critically important.

Changes in the nasal epithelium of rats exposed by inhalation to mixtures of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein.

Combined exposure to these aldehydes with the same target organ (nose) and exerting the same type of adverse effect (nasal cytotoxicity), but partly with different target sites (different regions of the nasal mucosa), is not associated with a greater hazard than that associated with exposure to the individual chemicals.

Short-term exposure to diesel exhaust induces nasal mucosal hyperresponsiveness to histamine in guinea pigs.

  • T. KobayashiT. Ikeue T. Suzuki
  • Medicine, Environmental Science
    Fundamental and applied toxicology : official journal of the Society of Toxicology
  • 1997
In the present study, using a rhinitis model of guinea pigs, short-term exposure to diesel exhaust potently induces nasal mucosal hyperresponsiveness.

Airflow, gas deposition, and lesion distribution in the nasal passages.

Studies of nasal airflow in rats and monkeys, using casting and molding techniques combined with a water-dye model, indicate that nasal airflow patterns are responsible for characteristic differences in the distribution of nasal lesions induced by formaldehyde in these species.

The relevance to humans of animal models for inhalation studies of cancer in the nose and upper airways.

  • D. Jm
  • Medicine, Biology
  • 1993
Although the monkey offers a more appropriate model for studying the toxic effects of inhaled substances on the nasal passages and extrapolating the findings to humans, the rat, which is very different from humans, is a poor model.