Health Risks Associated with Inhaled Nasal Toxicants

@article{Feron2001HealthRA,
  title={Health Risks Associated with Inhaled Nasal Toxicants},
  author={Victor J. Feron and Josje H. E. Arts and C Frieke Kuper and Pieter J. Slootweg and Ruud A. Woutersen},
  journal={Critical Reviews in Toxicology},
  year={2001},
  volume={31},
  pages={313 - 347}
}
Health risks of inhaled nasal toxicants were reviewed with emphasis on chemically induced nasal lesions in humans, sensory irritation, olfactory and trigeminal nerve toxicity, nasal immunopathology and carcino-genesis, nasal responses to chemical mixtures, in vitro models, and nasal dosimetry- and metabolism-based extrapolation of nasal data in animals to humans. Conspicuous findings in humans are the effects of outdoor air pollution on the nasal mucosa, and tobacco smoking as a risk factor for… 
6.19 – Olfactory System☆
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This chapter provides an update of the current understanding of chemically induced olfactory toxicity with a special emphasis on research that is of interest to neurotoxicologists.
13.15 – Olfactory System
TLDR
This chapter provides an update of the current understanding of chemically induced olfactory toxicity with a special emphasis on research that is of interest to neurotoxicologists.
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TLDR
Findings in only the rodent nasal mucosa do not necessarily predict either a toxic or carcinogenic hazard to that tissue in humans, and may reflect the lesser biotransformation activity of human nasal mucosal compared to rodent and the much lower levels of human exposures.
A REVIEW OF EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES AND NASAL EPITHELIUM ALTERATIONS
TLDR
Diesel exhaust particles, encountered in urban areas, are thought to be contributing causal factors to the exaggerated sensitization to allergens in subjects with appropriate genetic predisposition, sensitization that they might not otherwise have experienced.
DNA Damage in Nasal and Brain Tissues of Canines Exposed to Air Pollutants Is Associated with Evidence of Chronic Brain Inflammation and Neurodegeneration
TLDR
There was an acceleration of Alzheimer's-type pathology in dogs chronically exposed to air pollutants, suggesting that Alzheimer's disease may be the sequela of air pollutant exposures and the resulting systemic inflammation.
An integrative approach considering acute symptoms and intensity ratings of chemosensory sensations during experimental exposures.
TLDR
Chemosensory effects seem to be amplified by exposure peaks and less adaptive than assumed and in the course of the 4h exposures solely olfactory symptoms decreased.
Acute airway effects of diacetyl in mice
TLDR
High-level diacetyl exposures decreased the sensory irritation warning signal in mice upon repeated exposure, which suggests that the compound is especially insidious.
Association between atmospheric ozone levels and damage to human nasal mucosa in Florence, Italy
TLDR
High levels of atmospheric ozone in Florence air correlated with DNA damage, and to the prevalence of inflammatory pathologies of the upper respiratory tract, although the ozone concentrations were below the Italian recommended attention level.
Comparative evaluation of the effects of short-term inhalation exposure to diesel engine exhaust on rat lung and brain
TLDR
It is shown that a single, short-term inhalation exposure to DEE triggers region-specific gene expression changes in rat brain to an extent comparable to those observed in the lung.
Upper Respiratory Tract Lesions in Inhalation Toxicology
TLDR
Some important differences in normal histology of the upper respiratory tract of laboratory animals are described and examples of lesions observed or reported, predominantly rodents, exposed via inhalation are provided.
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