Heads-up limit hold’em poker is solved

@article{Bowling2015HeadsupLH,
  title={Heads-up limit hold’em poker is solved},
  author={Michael Bowling and Neil Burch and Michael Bradley Johanson and Oskari Tammelin},
  journal={Science},
  year={2015},
  volume={347},
  pages={145 - 149}
}
  • Michael Bowling, Neil Burch, +1 author Oskari Tammelin
  • Published 2015
  • Computer Science, Medicine
  • Science
  • I'll see your program and raise you mine One of the fundamental differences between playing chess and two-handed poker is that the chessboard and the pieces on it are visible throughout the entire game, but an opponent's cards in poker are private. This informational deficit increases the complexity and the uncertainty in calculating the best course of action—to raise, to fold, or to call. Bowling et al. now report that they have developed a computer program that can do just that for the heads… CONTINUE READING
    262 Citations

    Topics from this paper.

    Solving Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em
    • 81
    • PDF
    Solving imperfect-information games
    • 19
    • PDF
    Superhuman AI for multiplayer poker
    • 125
    • PDF
    Libratus: The Superhuman AI for No-Limit Poker
    • 32
    • PDF
    AI surpasses humans at six-player poker
    • 2
    Depth-Limited Solving for Imperfect-Information Games
    • 23
    • PDF
    Is poker a skill game? New insights from statistical physics
    • 13
    • PDF
    The Importance of Rank in Trick-Taking Card Games

    References

    SHOWING 1-10 OF 120 REFERENCES
    Checkers Is Solved
    • 380
    • PDF
    The challenge of poker
    • 302
    • PDF
    Programming a computer for playing chess
    • 883
    • PDF
    A Knowledge-Based Approach of Connect-Four
    • L. V. Allis
    • Computer Science
    • J. Int. Comput. Games Assoc.
    • 1988
    • 128
    • PDF
    Representations and Solutions for Game-Theoretic Problems
    • 208
    Computer poker: A review
    • 84
    • PDF