Head-bobbing of walking birds

@article{Necker2007HeadbobbingOW,
  title={Head-bobbing of walking birds},
  author={Reinhold Necker},
  journal={Journal of Comparative Physiology A},
  year={2007},
  volume={193},
  pages={1177-1183}
}
  • R. Necker
  • Published 7 November 2007
  • Biology
  • Journal of Comparative Physiology A
Many birds show a rhythmic forward and backward movement of their heads when they walk on the ground. This so-called “head-bobbing” is characterized by a rapid forward movement (thrust phase) which is followed by a phase where the head keeps its position with regard to the environment but moves backward with regard to the body (hold phase). These head movements are synchronized with the leg movements. The functional interpretations of head-bobbing are reviewed. Furthermore, it is discussed why… 

On vision in birds: coordination of head-bobbing and gait stabilises vertical head position in quail

Altering the timing of head-trunk-coordination in simulations showed that the timing naturally favoured by birds minimizes the vertical displacement of the head, consistent with expectations based on the vertical trunk fluctuations observed in biomechanical models of vaulting and bouncing locomotion.

Vision during head bobbing: are pigeons capable of shape discrimination during the thrust phase?

To investigate vision during the different phases and in particular to test for visual suppression during the saccadic thrust phase, pigeons are tested on a shape discrimination task, demonstrating that shape discrimination is as good during the thrust phase as it is during the hold phase.

Head and body stabilization in blowflies walking on differently structured substrates

No impairment in head and body stabilization during walks in darkness is found, which indicates that the control system mediating compensatory head movements works well without any visual input, and Interestingly, blowflies changed their walking style in the dark and seemed to use their forelegs as tactile probes.

Pigeons (C. livia) Follow Their Head during Turning Flight: Head Stabilization Underlies the Visual Control of Flight

The role of head stabilization in providing feedback cues for controlling turning flight in pigeons is investigated and it is confirmed that control of head motion is decoupled from aerodynamic and inertial forces acting on the bird's continuously rotating body during turning flapping flight.

Bird terrestrial locomotion as revealed by 3D kinematics.

The Evolution of Gaze Shifting Eye Movements.

  • M. Land
  • Biology, Psychology
    Current topics in behavioral neurosciences
  • 2018
In animals with good eyesight most eye movements consist of saccades, which rapidly shift the direction of the eye's axis, and intervals between the saccades (fixations) in which gaze is kept

Effects of head and tail as swinging appendages on the dynamic walking performance of a quadruped robot

Experiments show that tail swinging in roll can equilibrate feet–ground reaction forces (GRF), reducing yaw errors and enabling the robot to maintain its direction when trotting.

Review of Anthropomorphic Head Stabilisation and Verticality Estimation in Robots

Free-moving robotic systems could gain the full benefits of inertial measurements if the measurement units are placed on independently orientable platforms, such as human-like heads, by analysing recent humanoid robots design and control approaches.

Active Vision During Coordinated Head/Eye Movements in a Humanoid Robot

A method for egocentric distance estimation based on the parallax that emerges during compensatory head/eye movements is developed and tested in a robotic platform equipped with an anthropomorphic neck and two binocular pan-tilt units specifically designed to reproduce the visual input signals experienced by humans.

The Pigeon Constant: A Mathematical Model of Head-bobbing in Pigeons

  • Z. Chan
  • Biology
    SSRN Electronic Journal
  • 2019
The use of the “pigeon constant”, the fixed length through which pigeons appear to move their heads during motion at some fixed velocity, is proposed which shall be used to hence provide a quantitative link to velocity.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 38 REFERENCES

Visual control of head movements during avian locomotion

The impression that pigeons, chickens, and many other common birds bob their heads backward and forward as they walk is compelling but illusory, while a back and forth oscillation of the head is important in avian vision.

The Optokinetic Basis of Head-bobbing in the Pigeon

The fact that head-bobbing is abolished when pigeons walk on a treadmill suggests it is primarily a visual response rather than an equilibratory response.

HEAD-BOBBING DURING WALKING, RUNNING AND FLYING: RELATIVE MOTION PERCEPTION IN THE PIGEON

It is suggested that head-bobbing has the dual function of amplifying relative motion in the retinal image during the thrust phase, making the detection of food objects more likely, while allowing detection of object motion during the hold phase.

Head bobbing and the movement of the centre of gravity in walking pigeons ( Columba livia )

It was ascertained that the head thrust observed in the double support phase helps to shift the centre of gravity over the supporting foot around the beginning of the single support phase, but its effect was very small and the hold phase showed correlation with the COG positioning over the Supporting foot in the singleSupport phase.

Saccadic eye movements are coordinated with head movements in walking chickens.

  • D. W. Pratt
  • Psychology, Biology
    The Journal of experimental biology
  • 1982
Saccadic eye movements during walking were studied in chickens using cinematography and the coordination of saccades with head movements maintains clear vision for the largest possible proportion of the time.

Head movements and eye functions of birds.

The problem seemed to be of sufficient importance to warrant making a series of motion pictures of certain birds during pedestrial locomotion and of their reactions to certain passive bodily movements, and thus far, the study has been restricted to pigeons, chickens, starlings, and ducks; but sufficient data have been obtained to prove that the apparent backward movements of the head are not illusory.

Head-bobbing in pigeons: how stable is the hold phase?

V videography shows that, except for a small but systematic slip that presumably serves as an error signal for retinal image stabilization, the head of the pigeon remains locked in space not only with respect to the horizontal (roll) axis but also with Respect to vertical translation (along the yaw axis) and withrespect to rotation around the pitch and yaw axes.

Head-bobbing and head orientation during landing flights of pigeons

Abstract1.The head-bobbing rhythm previously reported in pigeons Columba livia during approximately level landing flights also occurs in upwards landing flights. This finding strengthens the evidence

Role of motor and visual experience during development of bipedal locomotion in chicks.

Imposition of shorter stride lengths induced chicks to take more frequent steps, spend less time in contact with the ground, and shortened head excursions during head bobbing, and these results are discussed along with related findings in other species and the possible neural and biomechanical constraints underlying development of walking andHead bobbing in birds.

Head bobbing and the body movement of little egrets (Egretta garzetta) during walking

  • M. Fujita
  • Biology
    Journal of Comparative Physiology A
  • 2002
Although previous studies have indicated that head bobbing of birds is an optokinetic movement, head bobbing can also be controlled by some biomechanical constraints when it occurs during walking. In