PURPOSE To describe the various types of head-mounted display technology, their optical and human-factors considerations, and their potential for use in low-vision rehabilitation and vision enhancement. DESIGN Expert perspective. METHODS An overview of head-mounted display technology by an interdisciplinary team of experts drawing on key literature in the field. RESULTS Head-mounted display technologies can be classified based on their display type and optical design. See-through displays such as retinal projection devices have the greatest potential for use as low-vision aids. Devices vary by their relationship to the user's eyes, field of view, illumination, resolution, color, stereopsis, effect on head motion, and user interface. These optical and human-factors considerations are important when selecting head-mounted displays for specific applications and patient groups. CONCLUSIONS Head-mounted display technologies may offer advantages over conventional low-vision aids. Future research should compare head-mounted displays with commonly prescribed low-vision aids to compare their effectiveness in addressing the impairments and rehabilitation goals of diverse patient populations.