Head Lice

  title={Head Lice},
  author={Barbara L. Frankowski and Joseph A. Bocchini},
  pages={392 - 403}
Head lice infestation is associated with limited morbidity but causes a high level of anxiety among parents of school-aged children. Since the 2002 clinical report on head lice was published by the American Academy of Pediatrics, patterns of resistance to products available over-the-counter and by prescription have changed, and additional mechanical means of removing head lice have been explored. This revised clinical report clarifies current diagnosis and treatment protocols and provides… 

Advancements in the treatment of head lice in pediatrics.

  • Christine EisenhowerE. Farrington
  • Medicine
    Journal of pediatric health care : official publication of National Association of Pediatric Nurse Associates & Practitioners
  • 2012

Topical ivermectin--a step toward making head lice dead lice?

Medical consequences of head-louse infestation can include itching and scratching, which may lead to cutaneous bacterial superinfection and possible transmission of Bartonella quintana, the trench-fever pathogen that is usually transmitted by body lice and that has been isolated from head lice.

The child with pediculosis capitis.

  • R. Yetman
  • Medicine
    Journal of pediatric health care : official publication of National Association of Pediatric Nurse Associates & Practitioners
  • 2015

Lice Update: Management and Treatment in the Home.

An overview of lice management, including identification and treatment of a lice infestation as well as recommendations for environmental control strategies in the home are provided, including an overview of the various over-the-counter and prescription treatment options.

Scabies and Head Lice

With both types of infestation, environmental measures can help prevent reinfection or spread to others, and topically and oral treatment is used to treat scabies and head lice.

Head lice and the use of spinosad.

Survey assessment on pediatricians’ attitudes on head lice management

The Italian pediatricians surveyed proved to be quite informed on the head lice management, even in a country where pediatric assistance is free for everybody, a considerable proportion of parents do not seek advice to their own family pediatrician.

Assessment of the safety and efficacy of three concentrations of topical ivermectin lotion as a treatment for head lice infestation

Background  Ivermectin is a broad‐spectrum parasiticide in widespread systemic use, including as an off‐label treatment for head lice infestation. The potential of the topical use of ivermectin as a

Vaccuuming method as a successful strategy in the diagnosis of active infestation by Pediculus humanus capitis

As presented in this study, the vacuuming method was 2.87 times most likely to detect active infestation, thus it could be adopted as a more accurate method to diagnose active pediculosis.

Efficacy of the LouseBuster, a New Medical Device for Treating Head Lice (Anoplura: Pediculidae)

The LouseBuster is efficacious for killing head lice and their eggs using controlled, heated air and achieved good results after a short training session; their results did not differ significantly from those of experienced operators.



A review of the epidemiology, public health importance, treatment and control of head lice.

To obtain effective control of head lice, the whole community needs to be involved and parents must be encouraged to screen themselves and their children regularly in the home, and to treat themselves only when necessary.

Efficacy of ivermectin for the treatment of head lice (Pediculosis capitis).

It is suggested that ivermectin is a promising treatment of head lice, and a second dose at day 10 should be appropriate for a further comparative trial.

International guidelines for effective control of head louse infestations.

It is suggested that health authorities should introduce more efficient methods for evaluating pediculicides and more stringent regulations for adoption of new anti-louse products and companies should develop effective and safe repellents and nit removal remedies.

Relationship of treatment-resistant head lice to the safety and efficacy of pediculicides.

The safety and efficacy of commonly used over-the-counter and prescription pediculicides and other treatments, such as ivermectin, that are not indicated for the treatment of head lice but are being used increasingly, are discussed.

Seizures after Lindane Therapy

  • M. Tenenbein
  • Medicine
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
  • 1991
Three elderly patients who each had a seizure after being treated for scabies with 1% lindane lotion are reported.

Head lice resistant to pyrethroid insecticides in Britain

Head lice found in parts of Israel and France have acquired resistance to the pyrethroid insecticides permethrin and phenothrin, and in Britain most failures of treatment reported to us have been attributable to causes other than resistance, including shorter than expected residual protection after treatment withpermethrin.

Review of common therapeutic options in the United States for the treatment of pediculosis capitis.

  • K. N. JonesJ. English
  • Medicine
    Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • 2003
Treatment recommendations from published literature and a recent meta-analysis from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews that describe the efficacy, safety, and resistance patterns of monotherapies available in the United States are summarized.

Dispelling the common myths about pediculosis.

  • E. Clore
  • Medicine
    Journal of pediatric health care : official publication of National Association of Pediatric Nurse Associates & Practitioners
  • 1989

An Effective Nonchemical Treatment for Head Lice: A Lot of Hot Air

It is demonstrated that one 30-minute application of hot air has the potential to eradicate head lice infestations and that hot air is an effective, safe treatment and one to which lice are unlikely to evolve resistance.

Head lice infestation: single drug versus combination therapy with one percent permethrin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.

It is recommended that the dual therapy with 1% PER and oral TMP/SMX be used and reserved in cases of multiple treatment failures or suspected cases of lice-related resistance to therapy.