Have Multilevel Models Been Structural Equation Models All Along?

  title={Have Multilevel Models Been Structural Equation Models All Along?},
  author={Patrick J Curran},
  journal={Multivariate behavioral research},
  volume={38 4},
A core assumption of the standard multiple regression model is independence of residuals, the violation of which results in biased standard errors and test statistics. The structural equation model (SEM) generalizes the regression model in several key ways, but the SEM also assumes independence of residuals. The multilevel model (MLM) was developed to extend the regression model to dependent data structures. Attempts have been made to extend the SEM in similar ways, but several complications… CONTINUE READING
Highly Influential
This paper has highly influenced 14 other papers. REVIEW HIGHLY INFLUENTIAL CITATIONS


Publications citing this paper.
Showing 1-10 of 83 extracted citations


Publications referenced by this paper.
Showing 1-10 of 74 references

Hierarchical linear models. Applications and data analysis methods ( 2nd ed.)

  • S. W. Raudenbush, A. S. Bryk
  • 2002
Highly Influential
6 Excerpts

Finite mixtures of covariance structure models with regressors

  • G. Arminger, P. Stein
  • Sociological Methods and Research,
  • 1997
Highly Influential
15 Excerpts

On the estimation of polychoric correlations and their asymptotic covariance matrix

  • K. G. Jöreskog
  • Psychometrika, 59, 381-389.
  • 1994
Highly Influential
4 Excerpts

Structural equations with latent variables

  • K. A. Bollen
  • New York: Wiley.
  • 1989
Highly Influential
4 Excerpts

Testing and probing interactions in fixed and multilevel regression models. Manuscript submitted for publication

  • D. J. Bauer, P. J. Curran
  • 2003
Highly Influential
4 Excerpts

Two-level mean and covariance structures: Maximum likelihood via an EM algorithm

  • P. M. Bentler, J. Liang
  • 2003
Highly Influential
4 Excerpts

Balanced versus unbalanced designs for linear structural relations in two-level data

  • R. P. McDonald, H. Goldstein
  • British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical…
  • 1989
Highly Influential
4 Excerpts

A general structural equation model with dichotomous, ordered categorical, and continuous latent variable indicators

  • B. O. Muthén
  • Psychometrika, 49, 115-132.
  • 1984
Highly Influential
4 Excerpts

Similar Papers

Loading similar papers…