# Have Multilevel Models Been Structural Equation Models All Along?

@article{Curran2003HaveMM, title={Have Multilevel Models Been Structural Equation Models All Along?}, author={Patrick J. Curran}, journal={Multivariate Behavioral Research}, year={2003}, volume={38}, pages={529 - 569} }

A core assumption of the standard multiple regression model is independence of residuals, the violation of which results in biased standard errors and test statistics. The structural equation model (SEM) generalizes the regression model in several key ways, but the SEM also assumes independence of residuals. The multilevel model (MLM) was developed to extend the regression model to dependent data structures. Attempts have been made to extend the SEM in similar ways, but several complications…

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