Havana Syndrome Among Canadian Diplomats: Brain Imaging Reveals Acquired Neurotoxicity

@article{Friedman2019HavanaSA,
  title={Havana Syndrome Among Canadian Diplomats: Brain Imaging Reveals Acquired Neurotoxicity},
  author={Alon Friedman and Cynthia V Calkin and Amanda J Adams and Guillermo A. Suarez and Timothy Bardouille and Noa Hacohen and A. Laine Green and R. Rishi Gupta and Javeria Ali Hashmi and Lyna Kamintsky and Jong Sung Kim and Robert LaRoche and Diane E MacKenzie and Dan Z. Milikovsky and Darren T. Oystreck and J Newton and Greg Noel and Jonathan Ofer and Maher A. Quraan and Claire Reardon and Margaux Ross and Derek James Rutherford and Matthias Helge Schmidt and Yonatan Serlin and Crystal L. Sweeney and Janine Verge and Leah A Walsh and Chris V. Bowen},
  journal={medRxiv},
  year={2019},
  pages={19007096}
}
In late 2016, US diplomats stationed in Havana began presenting with a variety of neurological manifestations that proved difficult to diagnose. Though previous studies suggested a likely association with brain injury, the mechanism of injury, brain regions involved, and etiology remained unknown.We conducted a multimodal study examining 26 Canadian diplomats and their family members, the majority of whom presented with symptoms similar to their American counterparts while residing in Havana… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Symptoms reported by Canadians posted in Havana are linked with reduced white matter fibre density
TLDR
Results reveal region-specific white matter injury, that is, significantly correlated with clinical symptoms of persistent migraine, tinnitus, sound sensitivity and fatigue in diplomats stationed in Havana.
Quantitative T2 MRI is predictive of neurodegeneration following organophosphate exposure in a rat model
TLDR
There is regionally specific neurodegeneration 24 h after exposure to soman, and the high correlation between T2 relaxivity and histopathology supports the use of T2 as a marker of injury.
Clinical and Psychological Factors Associated With Return to Work Among United States Diplomats Who Sustained a Work-Related Injury While on Assignment in Havana, Cuba
TLDR
Mood was not related to work ability, whereas vestibular, cognitive, sleep, visual and hearing symptoms, which did not lessen or abate, were related.
Canadian Contagion

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 51 REFERENCES
Neurological Manifestations Among US Government Personnel Reporting Directional Audible and Sensory Phenomena in Havana, Cuba
TLDR
In this preliminary report of a retrospective case series, persistent cognitive, vestibular, and oculomotor dysfunction, as well as sleep impairment and headaches, were observed among US government personnel in Havana, Cuba, associated with reports of directional audible and/or sensory phenomena of unclear origin.
Imaging blood–brain barrier dysfunction as a biomarker for epileptogenesis
TLDR
Results show that early blood-brain barrier pathology in the piriform network is a sensitive and specific predictor for epilepsy, while diffused pathology is associated with a lower risk.
Imaging blood-brain barrier dysfunction in football players.
TLDR
The extent and location of BBB dysfunction in football players is visualize using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) to explore the potential link between severe TBI and neurodegeneration.
Quantitative imaging assessment of blood-brain barrier permeability in humans
TLDR
Two new approaches for BBB assessment with less demanding imaging sequences are proposed, both of which allow semi-quantitative permeability assessment and localization of dysfunctional BBB with simple/partial dynamic imaging protocols and easy-to-apply analysis algorithms.
Blood-brain barrier breakdown is an early biomarker of human cognitive dysfunction
TLDR
Neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid analyses in humans reveal that loss of blood–brain barrier integrity and brain capillary pericyte damage are early biomarkers of cognitive impairment that occur independently of changes in amyloid-β and tau.
The physiology of the pedunculopontine nucleus: implications for deep brain stimulation
TLDR
The scientific basis for one of the newest targets, the PPN, in the treatment of PD and other movement disorders, is reviewed, the needs for further investigation are addressed, and guidelines for the determination of long-term assessment and effects of DBS are provided.
Concordance of common data elements for assessment of subjective cognitive complaints after mild-traumatic brain injury: a TRACK-TBI Pilot Study
TLDR
The results support the retention of RPQ as a basic CDE for mTBI research and show that the symptom questionnaires ACE and RPQ show good, but not excellent, agreement for SCCs in an mT BI study population.
The Rivermead Post Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire: a measure of symptoms commonly experienced after head injury and its reliability
TLDR
The Rivermead Post Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ) is presented as a measure of the severity of PCS and its reliability investigated, finding good reliability for individual PCS items generally, although with some variation between different symptoms.
...
...