Has the Hadley cell been strengthening in recent decades?

  title={Has the Hadley cell been strengthening in recent decades?},
  author={Christos M. Mitas and Amy C. Clement},
  journal={Geophysical Research Letters},
  • C. MitasA. Clement
  • Published 1 February 2005
  • Environmental Science
  • Geophysical Research Letters
The intensity and structure of the Northern Hemisphere DJF Hadley cell as depicted in various commonly used data sets are examined. We find that the NCEP/NCAR and ECMWF reanalyses show a statistically significant intensification of their Hadley circulation throughout their periods. In marked contrast the NCEP‐DOE reanalysis does not show any discernible trend over its period. Furthermore, the Hadley cell structure differs substantially from the other two reanalyses. We also examine a data set… 

Has the regional Hadley circulation over western Pacific during boreal winter been strengthening in recent decades?

ABSTRACT Previous studies suggest a robust intensification of the zonally averaged hadley circulation (HC) during boreal winter in recent decades, but little is known regarding the regional HC. This

Regional changes in the annual mean Hadley circulation in recent decades

Previous studies suggest that the zonally averaged Hadley circulation (ZAHC) has experienced a robust poleward expansion, and its trend in intensity displays inconsistency among different data sets.

Recent Hadley circulation strengthening: a trend or multidecadal variability?

This study explores the possible drivers of the recent Hadley circulation strengthening in the modern reanalyses. Predominantly, two recent generations of reanalyses provided by the European Centre

A comparison of the Hadley circulation in modern reanalyses

[1] Previous studies using reanalysis data suggest an intensification and poleward expansion of the tropical Hadley circulation (HC) throughout the twentieth century, yet the HC climatology and

Changes of the Boreal Winter Hadley Circulation in the NCEP–NCAR and ECMWF Reanalyses: A Comparative Study

Abstract Both the ECMWF and the NCEP–NCAR reanalyses show a strengthening of the atmospheric Hadley circulation in boreal winter over the last 50 years, but the intensification is much stronger in

Is Hadley Cell Expanding?

This review provides a comprehensive coverage of changes of the Hadley Cell extent and their impacts on the weather, climate, and society. The theories predicting the Hadley Cell width are introduced

Role of eddies in the interannual variability of Hadley cell strength

There is evidence from simplified atmosphere models that extratropical eddies strongly affect the Hadley cell mass flux. Here, we use reanalysis data to assess the role of eddy momentum transport in

Evidence of global warming impact on the evolution of the Hadley Circulation in ECMWF centennial reanalyses

This study analyzes the evolution of the Hadley Circulation (HC) during the twentieth century in ERA-20CM (AMIP-experiment) and ERA-20C (reanalysis). These two recent ECMWF products provide the

Arctic and Antarctic cells in the troposphere

The three-cell model, including the Hadley, Ferrel, and Polar cells in each of two hemispheres, has been accepted for a long time and the strongest Hadley cell has been used to study the climate

Changes in the strength and width of the Hadley Circulation since 1871

Recent studies demonstrate that the Hadley Circu- lation has intensified and expanded for the past three decades, which has important implications for subtropical societies and may lead to profound



Change in the Tropical Hadley Cell Since 1950

The change in the tropical Hadley cell since 1950 is examined within the context of the long-term warming in global surface temperatures. The study involves analyses of observations, including

Observed Interannual Variability in the Hadley Circulation and Its Connection to ENSO

Abstract Based on a 26-yr set of daily global upper-air wind data for the period January 1964–December 1989, the interannual variability in the strength of the tropical Hadley cells is investigated.

The Hadley circulation: assessing NCEP/NCAR reanalysis and sparse in-situ estimates

Abstract We present a comparison of the zonal mean meridional circulations derived from monthly in situ data (i.e. radiosondes and ship reports) and from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis product. To

NCEP–DOE AMIP-II Reanalysis (R-2)

The NCEP–DOE Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP-II) reanalysis is a follow-on project to the “50-year” (1948–present) NCEP–NCAR Reanalysis Project. NCEP–DOE AMIP-II re-analysis covers

Trend and interannual variability of Walker, monsoon and Hadley circulations defined by velocity potential in the upper troposphere

In this paper, we attempt to divide the global divergent field at the upper troposphere in contributions from the Hadley, Walker and monsoon circulations, using a monthly mean velocity potential

Evidence for Strengthening of the Tropical General Circulation in the 1990s

By analyzing temporal changes in the frequency of occurrence of emitted thermal and reflected solar fluxes, the effects of El Niño–Southern Oscillation are minimized, and an independent longer-time-scale variation of the radiation budget is identified.

Climate and the Tropical Oceans

Abstract An attempt is made to determine the role of the ocean in establishing the mean tropical climate and its sensitivity to radiative perturbations. A simple two-box energy balance model is

Evidence for Large Decadal Variability in the Tropical Mean Radiative Energy Budget

New evidence is presented that the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) tropical radiative energy budget is much more dynamic and variable than previously thought and the results indicate that the radiation budget changes are caused by changes in tropical mean cloudiness.

Analyses of global sea surface temperature 1856–1991

Global analyses of monthly sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies from 1856 to 1991 are produced using three statistically based methods: optimal smoothing (OS), the Kalrnan filter (KF) and optimal

Radiative‐convective model with an explicit hydrologic cycle: 1. Formulation and sensitivity to model parameters

A hydrological cycle is explicityl included in a one-dimensional radiative-convective equilibrium model which is coupled to a “swamp” surface and tested with various cumulus convection schemes: the