Has horsepox become extinct?

  title={Has horsepox become extinct?},
  author={Jos{\'e} Esparza},
  journal={Veterinary Record},
  pages={272 - 273}
  • J. Esparza
  • Published 21 September 2013
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Veterinary Record
Mystery surrounds the extent to which horsepox virus may have contributed to the vaccinia virus used to eradicate smallpox. With few documented cases of horsepox in recent years it may never be solved, says José Esparza, who seeks to raise awareness of the potential historical and scientific importance of identifying new cases. 
12 Citations
An Early American Smallpox Vaccine Based on Horsepox.
Light is shed on the origins of the vaccinia virus and its role in the development of the smallpox vaccine.
The origins and genomic diversity of American Civil War Era smallpox vaccine strains
Using the authenticated ancient genomes to reveal the evolutionary relationships of smallpox vaccination viruses within the poxviruses as a whole is used.
Revisiting Jenner's mysteries, the role of the Beaugency lymph in the evolutionary path of ancient smallpox vaccines.
  • C. Damaso
  • Biology, Medicine
    The Lancet. Infectious diseases
  • 2018
A historical investigation revisits the mysteries of the smallpox vaccine and reveals an intricate evolutionary relationship of extant vaccine strains, suggesting the lymph was probably a vaccinia strain or a horsepox-like virus.
Synthetic viruses—Anything new?
  • V. Thiel
  • Medicine, Biology
    PLoS pathogens
  • 2018
No major change concerning the likelihood of a “resurrection” of smallpox emerges from this publication, but it is evident that the scientific community, politicians, decision makers, and the lay public have to continue, and probably intensify, a discussion on benefits and risks of synthetic biology in a broader sense.
Molecular and genomic characterization of a novel equine molluscum contagiosum-like virus
The first full-length genome sequence of an equine molluscum contagiosum-like virus (EMCLV) directly determined from skin biopsies of a horse with generalized papular dermatitis suggests that EMCLV should be nominated as a new species within the genus Molluscipoxvirus.
The Evolution of Poxvirus Vaccines
This review highlights the evolution of poxvirus vaccines, from first generation to the current status, pointing out how different vaccines have emerged and approaches that are being followed up in the development of more rational vaccines against a wide range of diseases.
Beyond the myths: Novel findings for old paradigms in the history of the smallpox vaccine
This poster presents a poster presented at the 2016 World Conference of the American Association for the Advancement of Pasteurization of Viruses ( AACS) to discuss the science and technology behind the discovery of Clostridium difficile and its role in infectious disease.
Equination (inoculation of horsepox): An early alternative to vaccination (inoculation of cowpox) and the potential role of horsepox virus in the origin of the smallpox vaccine.
It is reported that a commercially produced smallpox vaccine, manufactured in the United States in 1902, is genetically highly similar to horsepox virus, providing a missing link in this 200-year-old mystery.
Construction of an infectious horsepox virus vaccine from chemically synthesized DNA fragments
This work believes this is the first complete synthesis of a poxvirus using synthetic biology approaches and supports further development of scHPXV as a novel replication-proficient smallpox vaccine.
The prevention and eradication of smallpox: a commentary on Sloane (1755) ‘An account of inoculation’
  • R. Weiss, J. Esparza
  • Medicine
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • 2015
The significance of variolation and vaccination with respect to scientific, public health and ethical controversies concerning these ‘weapons of mass protection’ are discussed.


Chasing Jenner's Vaccine: Revisiting Cowpox Virus Classification
Genotypic data presented herein indicate that CPXV is not a single species, but a composite of several species that can infect cows, humans, and other animals and suggest that both wild and modern vaccine strains of Vaccinia virus are most closely related toCPXV of continental Europe rather than the United Kingdom, the homeland of the vaccine.
Genome of Horsepox Virus
The genomic sequence of horsepox virus (HSPV) isolate MNR-76, an orthopoxvirus (OPV) isolated in 1976 from diseased Mongolian horses, indicated that HSPV contains unique genomic features likely contributing to a unique virulence/host range phenotype.
Isolation, cultivation and characterization of a poxvirus from some horses in Kenya.
Two strains of pox virus isolated from naturally infected horses were adapted to the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of developing chick embryos and to tissue cultures and the CAM, suggesting an immunological relationship between the horse virus and vaccinia and cowpox viruses.
Jenner's smallpox vaccine. The riddle of vaccinia virus and its origin
A note on the history of horsepox.
  • C. H. Eby
  • Medicine
    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
  • 1958