Harnessing Tumor Mutations for Truly Individualized Cancer Vaccines.

  title={Harnessing Tumor Mutations for Truly Individualized Cancer Vaccines.},
  author={Mathias Vormehr and {\"O}zlem T{\"u}reci and Uğur Şahin},
  journal={Annual review of medicine},
T cells are key effectors of anticancer immunity. They are capable of distinguishing tumor cells from normal ones by recognizing major histocompatibility complex-bound cancer-specific peptides. Accumulating evidence suggests that peptides associated with T cell-mediated tumor rejection arise predominantly from somatically mutated proteins and are unique to every patient's tumor. Knowledge of an individual's cancer mutanome (the entirety of cancer mutations) allows harnessing this enormous tumor… 

Identification of neoantigens for individualized therapeutic cancer vaccines.

A new classification of neoantIGens is presented, distinguishing between guarding, restrained and ignored neoantigens, based on how they confer proficient antitumour immunity in a given clinical context, to contribute to a framework that connects neoantigen biology to the clinical setting and medical peculiarities of cancer.

Targeting public neoantigens for cancer immunotherapy.

The opportunities and challenges involved in the identification of suitable public neoantigen targets and the development of therapeutic agents targeting them are reviewed.

Advances in the development of personalized neoantigen-based therapeutic cancer vaccines

An overview of the complex process that is necessary to generate a personalized neoantigen vaccine, the types of vaccine-induced T cells that are found within tumours and outline strategies to enhance the T cell responses are provided.

Combining Cancer Vaccines with Immunotherapy: Establishing a New Immunological Approach

This review describes the current understanding with respect to the use of the antigen repertoire in vaccine platform development and suggests a strategy that combines immune checkpoint inhibitors to enhance the efficacy of cancer vaccines.

Antigen presentation in cancer: insights into tumour immunogenicity and immune evasion.

Evidence of immune evasion by means of quantitative modulation or qualitative alteration of the antigen repertoire presented on tumours is summarized, which mechanisms include modulation of antigen expression, HLA-I surface levels, alterations in the antigen processing and presentation machinery in tumour cells.

Tumor-associated antigen-based personalized dendritic cell vaccine in solid tumor patients

Personalized TAA immunization-induced-specific CD4 + and CD8 + T cell responses without obvious autoimmune adverse events and was associated with favorable overall survival in patients with glioblastoma multiforme or advanced lung cancer are reported.

Targeting Neoantigens in Hepatocellular Carcinoma for Immunotherapy: A Futile Strategy?

The limits of using neoantigens as targets in HCC immunotherapy are discussed and alternative strategies to overcome these limits are suggested.

Therapeutic cancer vaccines.

This Review deliberate on how to improve and expand the antigen repertoire for vaccines, consider developments in vaccine platforms and explore antigen-agnostic in situ vaccines, and proposes strategies for combining suitable vaccine platforms with novel immunomodulatory approaches and standard-of-care treatments for overcoming tumour resistance and enhancing clinical efficacy.

Targeting Tumor‐Associated Antigens in Hepatocellular Carcinoma for Immunotherapy: Past Pitfalls and Future Strategies

It is concluded that targeting TAA in HCC for immunotherapy is necessary and new strategies are needed to improve clinical efficacy, and a new vaccine platform is proposed that enhances all three arms of the adaptive immune system to improve TAA-based cancer vaccination in H CC patients.