Haplotypic variants in DRD2, ANKK1, TTC12, and NCAM1 are associated with comorbid alcohol and drug dependence.

  title={Haplotypic variants in DRD2, ANKK1, TTC12, and NCAM1 are associated with comorbid alcohol and drug dependence.},
  author={Bao-zhu Yang and Henry R. Kranzler and Hongyu Zhao and Jeffrey R. Gruen and Xingguang Luo and Joel Gelernter},
  journal={Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research},
  volume={32 12},
BACKGROUND Each gene in the chromosome 11q23 cluster of NCAM1, TTC12, ANKK1, and DRD2 is functionally linked to dopamine in brain. Many association studies of DRD2 and substance dependence (SD), including alcohol dependence (AD) and drug dependence (DD), have been reported; the results have been inconsistent. Recent association studies have considered this cluster more comprehensively, examining the association of SD with several risk variants mapped to the other genes in the cluster. Because… CONTINUE READING
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