Seizures and adverse events during routine scalp electroencephalography: a clinical and EEG analysis of 1000 records.
- Heather Angus-Leppan
- Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of…
Electroencephalographic recordings in dogs: prevention of muscle artifacts and evaluation of two activation techniques in healthy individuals. Res Vet Sci. Article in Press. Electroencephalographic recordings in dogs suffering from idiopathic and symptomatic epilepsy: diagnostic value of interictal short time EEG protocols supplemented by two activation techniques. Submitted. Paroxysmal discharges and photic driving in the electroencephalogram of healthy and diseased cats under propofol anesthesia. Submitted. Epilepsy is one of the most frequent neurological diseases in dogs and cats (Berendt, 2004). An epileptic seizure is characterized by excessive and/or hypersynchronous and usually self-limited activity of neurons in the brain (Blume et al., 2001). De Lahunta and Glass (2009) differentiate focal, partial and generalised seizures. Whereas focal seizures are without spread and only visible in the EEG, partial and generalized seizures are clinical entities (de Lahunta and Glass, 2009). Partial seizures affect only a part of one cerebral hemisphere (Blume et al., 2001). Simple and complex partial seizures are discriminated by the disturbance of the patient's sensorium (de Lahunta and Glass, 2009). A generalised seizure is characterised through the involvement of both cerebral hemispheres (Blume et al., 2001). Epilepsy is defined as a status of recurrent seizures (Berendt, 2004). Etiologically, three different forms of epilepsy or seizures can be differentiated: idiopathic or primary epilepsy, symptomatic or secondary epilepsy and reactive seizures (March, 1998). During a cluster two or more seizures occur within a 24 hour time span (de Lahunta and Glass, 2009). A seizure of 30 minutes or longer duration or recurrent seizures without interictal resumption of baseline central nervous system function are called status epilepticus (Blume et al. Idiopathic or primary epilepsy is characterised by recurrent, unprovoked seizures without any underlying structural brain disease (for example tumour or encephalitis) predisposition or different modes of inheritance have been suggested for different Although the first seizure can occur between six month and ten years of age (Thomas, 2010), most dogs suffer from their first seizure, when they are one to five years old (Podell et al., 1995). Due to the fact, that no underlying cause can be found, idiopathic epilepsy is a diagnosis of exclusion