Hand-assisted laparoscopic left nephrectomy in standing horses.


OBJECTIVE To describe a hand-assisted, laparoscopic technique to remove the left kidney in standing horses. STUDY DESIGN Prospective evaluation. ANIMALS Eight horses. METHODS Food was withheld for a minimum of 12 hours. Horses were sedated with detomidine hydrochloride (0.01-0.02 mg/kg, intravenously) and restrained in standing stocks. The left… (More)


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