Hand, foot and mouth disease: current knowledge on clinical manifestations, epidemiology, aetiology and prevention

  title={Hand, foot and mouth disease: current knowledge on clinical manifestations, epidemiology, aetiology and prevention},
  author={Susanna Esposito and Nicola Principi},
  journal={European Journal of Clinical Microbiology \& Infectious Diseases},
  • S. EspositoN. Principi
  • Published 6 February 2018
  • Medicine, Biology
  • European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
For a long time, hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) was seen as a mild viral infection characterized by typical clinical manifestations that spontaneously resolved in a few days without complications. In the past two decades, HFMD has received new attention because of evidence that this disease could have clinical, epidemiological and aetiological characteristics quite different from those initially thought. In contrast to previous beliefs, it has been clarified that HFMD can be associated… 

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Findings add to the global genetic resources of CVA16, demonstrate the epidemiological characteristics of HFMD as well as the genetic features of C VA16 in Taiyuan City during 2010–2021, and provide supporting evidence for the prevention and control of HF MD.


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  • 2012
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  • 2014
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Characterization of severe hand, foot, and mouth disease in Shenzhen, China, 2009–2013

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused by human enteroviruses, especially by enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16). Patients infected with different enteroviruses show varied

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