Hafnium isotope stratigraphy of ferromanganese crusts

@article{Lee1999HafniumIS,
  title={Hafnium isotope stratigraphy of ferromanganese crusts},
  author={K M Lee and Halliday and Hein and Burton and Christensen and Gunther},
  journal={Science},
  year={1999},
  volume={285 5430},
  pages={1052-4}
}
A Cenozoic record of hafnium isotopic compositions of central Pacific deep water has been obtained from two ferromanganese crusts. The crusts are separated by more than 3000 kilometers but display similar secular variations. Significant fluctuations in hafnium isotopic composition occurred in the Eocene and Oligocene, possibly related to direct advection from the Indian and Atlantic oceans. Hafnium isotopic compositions have remained approximately uniform for the past 20 million years, probably… CONTINUE READING