Haemothermia or Archosauria? The interrelationships of mammals, birds and crocodiles

@article{Kemp1988HaemothermiaOA,
  title={Haemothermia or Archosauria? The interrelationships of mammals, birds and crocodiles},
  author={Thomas Kemp},
  journal={Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society},
  year={1988},
  volume={92},
  pages={67-104}
}
  • Thomas Kemp
  • Published 1988
  • Biology
  • Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society
The recently proposed hypothesis that the living birds and the living mammals are sister groups, together forming a natural taxon Haemothermia, is contrasted with the more traditional view, that birds and crocodiles are living sister groups within the taxon Archosauria. Of the 28 or so characters claimed to be unique to the Haemothermia, several are found to be structurally or developmentally different in birds compared to mammals. Others are found to occur also in crocodiles. In either case… 

Phylogenetic relationship of birds with crocodiles and mammals, as deduced from protein sequences.

TLDR
The peptide hormones pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and insulin sequences suggest that the root is on the porcine-and therefore the mammalian-lineage, making birds and alligators sister taxa.

The platypus is not a rodent: DNA hybridization, amniote phylogeny and the palimpsest theory.

  • J. KirschG. C. Mayer
  • Biology
    Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 1998
TLDR
DNA-hybridization data on 21 amniotes and two anurans showing that discrimination is obtained among most of these at the class and lower levels is presented, concluding that the evidential meaning of the molecular data is as shown in the trees, but that the topologies may be influenced by a base-compositional bias producing a seemingly slow evolutionary rate in monotremes, or by algorithmic artefacts.

The complete mitochondrial genome of Alligator mississippiensis and the separation between recent archosauria (birds and crocodiles).

TLDR
The complete mitochondrial genome of the alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, was sequenced and maximum-likelihood branch length data of amino acid sequences suggest that the divergence between the avian and crocodilian lineages took place at approximately equal to 254 MYA.

Respiratory and Reproductive Paleophysiology of Dinosaurs and Early Birds

TLDR
The absence of nasal respiratory turbinates in these animals indicates that they were likely to have maintained reptile‐like (ectothermic) metabolic rates during periods of rest or routine activity, and persistent in vivo burial of their nests and apparent lack of egg turning suggests that clutch incubation by dinosaurs was more reptile- than birdlike.

A molecular model for the evolution of endothermy in the theropod-bird lineage.

TLDR
The model begins with simple changes in a single gene of a common ancestor, and it includes a series of concomitant physiological and morphological changes, beginning perhaps as early as the first archosaurian common ancestor of dinosaurs and crocodiles.

Historical Burden In Systematics And The Interrelationships Of ‘Parareptiles’

TLDR
Turtles are the highly modified survivors of a radiation of poorly‐known reptiles commonly called ‘parareptiles’, and the procolophonoid hypotheses is supported by only one synapomorphy (the slender stapes).

Pareiasaur phylogeny and the origin of turtles

TLDR
Many features thought to be restricted to turtles (and thus to have evolved simultaneously with the turtle shell) actually arose earlier, at various points along the pareiasaurian stem lineage.

A critical reappraisal of the fossil record of the bilaterian phyla.

TLDR
It is shown that the prospect of lineage diversification occurring early in the Proterozoic can be seen to be unlikely on grounds of both parsimony and functional morphology, and this analysis points to the requirement for a careful application of systematic methodology before explanations are sought for alleged patterns of constraint and flexibility.

Respiratory physiology of the dinosaurs

TLDR
The apparent absence of respiratory turbinates in dinosaurs, as well as likely ectothermic patterns of thermoregulation in very early birds, argues strongly that these animals were unlikely to have achieved the metabolic status of modern terrestrial endotherms.

A critical reappraisal of the fossil record of the bilaterian phyla

  • G. BuddS. Jensen
  • Biology
    Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
  • 2000
TLDR
It is shown that the prospect of lineage diversification occurring early in the Proterozoic can be seen to be unlikely on grounds of both parsimony and functional morphology, and this analysis points to the requirement for a careful application of systematic methodology before explanations are sought for alleged patterns of constraint and flexibility.

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 55 REFERENCES

Archaeopteryx and the origin of birds

TLDR
Analysis of the five presently known skeletal specimens of Archaeopteryx confirm the conclusions (long rejected by most subsequent workers) of Heilmann (1926), Lowe (1935, 1944, 1944) and Holmgren (1955), namely, that the skeletal anatomy of Archaeipteryx is extraordinarily similar to that of contemporaneous and succeeding coelurosaurian dinosaurs.

New look at the origin of birds and crocodiles

TLDR
The results of this investigation strongly support a hypothesis of a common pseudosuchian origin for birds and crocodiles, independent of dinosaurs.

The postcranial skeletons of the Triassic mammals Eozostrodon, Megazostrodon and Erythrotherium.

The purposes of this monograph are to describe the postcranial skeletons of the earliest known mammals, and to probe, in so far as possible by osteological study, biological questions concerning the

Classification and phylogeny of the diapsid reptiles

  • M. Benton
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 1985
TLDR
A cladistic analysis of skull and skeletal characters of all described Permo-Triassic diapsid reptiles suggests some significant rearrangements to commonly held views of the Diapsida.

The relationships of mammals

TLDR
It is argued that the current views are variously based on an overemphasis of superficial dental similarities, misinterpretation of the structure of the mammalian braincase, and too ready acceptance of parallel evolution amongst the groups concerned.

alpha-Crystallin A sequences of Alligator mississippiensis and the lizard Tupinambis teguixin: molecular evolution and reptilian phylogeny.

TLDR
Maximum-parsimony analyses of the total data set of 67 vertebrate alpha A sequences support the monophyletic origin of alligator, tegu, and birds and favor the grouping of crocodilians and birds as surviving sister groups in the subclass Archosauria.

Philosophy and the Transformation of Cladistics

TLDR
The main principles of the Hennigian system are that the basic process of organic evolution is the splitting of an ancestral species into two descendant species and that each dichotomy should be taken as marking the origin of two new units of classification; and that the hierarchic level of such units should be determined by the geological time when the dichotomy occurred.

II. The cochlea of the ornithorhynchus platypus compared with that of ordinary mammals and of birds

  • U. Pritchard
  • Environmental Science
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London
  • 1881
TLDR
I made inquiries for specimens of the Ornithorhynchus platypus among my Australian friends, and succeeded in obtaining several skulls of that animal in an excellent state of preservation, which enabled me to make some researches into the morphological and microscopical structure of this cochlea, the results of which I trust will be deemed worthy of the consideration of the Royal Society.

Significance of Fossils in Determining Evolutionary Relationships

TLDR
It is the dissemination and development of those ideas that have called the role of fossils into question, and necessitated this review, that are called into question.

Phylogeny and DNA-DNA hybridization.

TLDR
The delta Q-test is introduced, a nonparametric test ofphylogenetic relationships that is based on distance data that favors Sibley and Ahlquist’s phylogeny over his own-but, according to Templeton ( 1985), not significantly, and it can be shown that this test lacks sufficient power to discriminate between these phylogenies.
...