Haemolytic phospholipase A and nerve-affecting activities of sea anemone nematocyst venom.

@article{Hessinger1973HaemolyticPA,
  title={Haemolytic phospholipase A and nerve-affecting activities of sea anemone nematocyst venom.},
  author={David A. Hessinger and Howard M. Lenhoff and Linda B. Kahan},
  journal={Nature: New biology},
  year={1973},
  volume={241 108},
  pages={
          125-7
        }
}
THE paralysing venom of coelenterates is injected into their prey from nematocysts, tiny (55–75 µm) intracellular collagenlike organelles1 found in all members of this phylum2. Recent attempts to investigate the physiological actions of nematocyst venoms3–11,28 have been consistently hampered by (a) the difficulty in obtaining pure undischarged nematocysts free of cytoplasmic contaminants from which the venom could be isolated and (b) the lack of a reliable and accurate physiological assay. The… Expand

Topics from this paper

Assay and properties of the hemolysis activity of pure venom from the nematocysts of the acontia of the sea anemone
Pure venom from the acontial nematocysts of the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida was isolated and an assay for the hemolysis activity of the venom devised. The assay is rapid, sensitive, andExpand
Isolation and partial characterization of a hemolytic and toxic protein from the nematocyst venom of the Portuguese Man-of-War, Physalia physalis.
TLDR
Physalitoxin is the first hemolytic toxin from a cnidarian to be purified directly from isolated nematocysts and represents the major glycoprotein of the venom. Expand
Analysis of Soluble Protein Contents from the Nematocysts of a Model Sea Anemone Sheds Light on Venom Evolution
TLDR
These findings reveal for the first time the possible venom components of a sea anemone nematocyst and suggest their evolutionary origins. Expand
Purification and partial characterization of the phospholipase A2 and co-lytic factor from sea anemone (Aiptasia pallida) nematocyst venom.
Functional nematocysts of one specific morphological class, the penetrant microbasic mastigophores, were isolated from the sea anemone, Aiptasia pallida. These nematocysts contain a multicomponentExpand
Membrane structure and function. Mechanism of hemolysis induced by nematocyst venom: roles of phospholipase A and direct lytic factor.
Abstract Pure venom from the acontial nematocysts of the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida exhibited phospholipase A (phosphatide acyl-hydrolase; EC 3.1.1.4) activity on a mixture of free phospholipids.Expand
Antibodies to sea anemone nematocyst venom--II. Neutralization of the hemolytic, phospholipase A2 and lethal activities by purified antibodies produced in response to attenuated venom.
  • D. A. Hessinger, R. Grove
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology
  • 1979
TLDR
The amounts of immune IgG which specifically inhibited the hemolytic, phospholipase A 2 and lethal activities of the venom were determined and related to the possible mechanisms of hemolysis and mouse lethality. Expand
Coelenterolysin: a hemolytic polypeptide associated with the coelenteric fluid of sea anemones
TLDR
The results indicate that the hemolytic activity is due to a single peptide or a group of peptides of similar size, which the authors here designate as "coelenterolysin", which may have a role in extraceilular digestion, defense against predators and invasion of the coelenteron by foreign organisms. Expand
Sea Anemone (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria) Toxins: An Overview
TLDR
The phylogentic relationships of sea anemone toxins are assessed, characterized such toxins, the genes encoding them and the toxins three-dimensional structures are characterized, further providing a state-of-the-art description of the procedures involved in the isolation and purification of bioactive toxins. Expand
Hemolytic and toxic properties of Hydra attenuata nematocysts.
TLDR
Crude extract prepared from isolated and purified nematocysts of Hydra attenuata Pall contains two main toxic proteins, neither of which is identical with the previously described phospholipase. Expand
Chemical modification of the haemolytic activity of extracts from the box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri (cnidaria).
  • H. Crone
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology
  • 1976
TLDR
The inhibition of haemolysis was observed when nanogram quantities of crude ganglioside were employed, suggesting a high affinity of ganglarioside for haeemolysin, which was also observed in the Chironex extracts. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 25 REFERENCES
Properties and composition of the nematocyst toxin of the sea anemone, Aiptasia pallida
TLDR
Compounds previously thought to be possible components of nematocyst toxins such as quaternary amines and hydroxyindoles were not found in the nematocytes of Aiptasia and were found to be composed mainly of the amino acid glutamic acid. Expand
Sea wasp (Chironex fleckeri) venom: lethal, haemolytic and dermonecrotic properties.
  • E. Baxter, A. G. Marr
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology
  • 1969
TLDR
Fractionation of the venoms by the use of Sephadex chromatography and adsorption and neutralization studies show that the properties derive from similar, but not the same, compounds. Expand
Further studies of toxic material from nematocysts of the cubomedusan Chironex fleckeri Southcott.
  • R. Endean, L. Henderson
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology
  • 1969
Saline extracts of intracapsular material from the nematocysts of C. fleckeri lost their activity against muscle if incubated with protease, heated at 42°, exposed to strong salt solutions, acidExpand
HEMOLYSIS AND SPLITTING OF HUMAN ERYTHROCYTE PHOSPHOLIPIDS BY SNAKE VENOMS.
TLDR
Phospholipase A fractions isolated from the Cobra venoms were devoid of hemolytic activity and caused no significant breakdown of phospholipids in the intact erythrocytes, while the Russell's viper venom was found to contain phospholIPases of either type. Expand
Chromatographic properties of the hemolysin from the cnidarian Chironex fleckeri.
  • H. Crone, T. E. Keen
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology
  • 1969
TLDR
It was concluded that the hemolytic activity of the extracts of the jellyfish Chironex fleckeri was due to a single component, a protein of molecular weight of approximately 70,000, and at least one other toxic component was present. Expand
Purification of a toxin from tentacles of the anemone Condylactis gigantea.
  • B. Shapiro
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology
  • 1968
TLDR
A toxin from the tentacles of the anemone Condylactis gigantea has been partially purified and it is found that this toxin, which paralyzes crustacea, is a water-soluble protein. Expand
The hemolytic properties of extracts of tentacles from the cnidarian Chironex fleckeri.
  • T. E. Keen, H. Crone
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology
  • 1969
TLDR
The properties of an extract of the tentacles from Chironex fleckeri were examined and the hemolysin was labile at room temperatures but when care was taken to prevent deterioration it had a high degree of activity which was unaffected by cholesterol. Expand
Dermatonecrotic properties of extracts from the tentacles of the cnidarian Chironex fleckeri.
  • T. E. Keen, H. Crone
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology
  • 1969
TLDR
The dermatonecrotic activity is antigenic and neutralizing antibodies can be produced in rabbits, and the necrosis of skin appears to be the direct effect of the active material on the cells of the epidermis and dermis. Expand
Ionic effects on discharge of the isolated and in situ nematocysts of the sea anemone, Aiptasia pallida: A possible role of calcium
Abstract 1. Nematocysts were isolated from acontia by extrusion in 1·0 M sodium citrate. The high concentration was necessary to maintain the liberated nematocysts in an undischarged state. 2. 2.Expand
Immunity to the venom of the sea wasp Chironex fleckeri.
TLDR
Using repeated small doses of venom, mice were immunized successfully against a lethal venom challenge, but were unprotected against the necrotic reaction, although it neutralizes this factor in vitro. Expand
...
1
2
3
...