The haemodynamic effect of Tolmesoxide, a new sulphoxide chemically dissimilar from other vasodilators, was investigated in eight patients with chronic heart failure subsequent to ischaemic heart disease and/or hypertension. Tolmesoxide significantly increased the cardiac output and reduced the indices of systemic vascular resistance, the mean pulmonary arterial pressure and left ventricular filling pressure in most patients studied. These changes were observed both as acute and chronic effects. No significant effect on the mean arterial pressure, heart rate or myocardial oxygen supply/demand was observed. Tolmesoxide appeared to be therapeutically potent by both intravenous and oral routes.