Hachinski's ischemic score and the diagnosis of vascular dementia: A review

  title={Hachinski's ischemic score and the diagnosis of vascular dementia: A review},
  author={Leonardo Pantoni and Domenico Inzitari},
  journal={The Italian Journal of Neurological Sciences},
The Hachinski ischemic score (HIS) scale is a simple clinical tool proposed and currently used for differentiating types of dementia (primary degenerative, vascular or multi-infarct, mixed type). Criteria for rating the items of the HIS were never given, or inter-observer reliability in applying it has never been tested. However, the studies which estimated the validity of this scale in predicting the true diagnosis (clinical/CT or neuropathological definition) demonstrated acceptable… 
Comments on Hachinski's ischemic score for vascular dementia
In the authors' opinion, the conclusion that the HIS can be considered as having acceptable validity is not justified, and it is misleading for both clinicians and researchers.
Optimizing the Hachinski Ischemic Scale.
Two optimized HIS versions were identified that classify patients with vascular dementia vs those with nonvascular dementia as well as or more accurately than the original HIS instrument.
Optimizing the Hachinski ischemic scale
Diagnostic issues in non-AD dementias
Clinical utility of cognitive screening instruments in dementia patients of neurology OPD (Memory Clinic) in Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India
MoCA, ACE, and EASI tools have good capability to detect most patients with cognitive impairments and are sensitive to predict probable cases of dementia, therefore can be used as an efficient diagnostic tool in quick screening of cognitive impairment.
Clinical Correlates of Hachinski Ischemic Score and Vascular Factors in Cognitive Function of Elderly
The Hachinski ischemic score seemed to contribute to the evaluation of the quantity of vascular factors and to the prediction of status of cognitive function in elderly community.
Cerebrolysin for vascular dementia.
This is the first update of a review of Cerebrolysin in vascular dementia to add new studies from the international literature and employ contemporary methods for appraising the strength of the evidence.
Investigation of risk factors for the conversion of mild cognitive impairment to dementia
Age and worsening attention but not depression in MCI patients were independently associated with the progression of dementia in a 6-year follow-up period.


Prospective neuropathological validation of Hachinski's Ischaemic Score in dementias.
The uncritical application of Hachinski's Ischaemic Score to large samples in epidemiological studies may cause incorrect labelling of a significant proportion of patients with primary degenerative dementia as vascular dementia, based on observations of long-term inpatients and depend on neuropathological criteria.
Diagnostic evaluation of degenerative and vascular dementia.
A modified ischemic score consisting of five items (abrupt onset; history of strokes; focal symptoms; focal signs; focal (single or multiple) CT-low density areas) is proposed as a useful tool in the differential diagnosis between SDAT and MID.
Differential diagnosis of presenile dementia on clinical grounds
The results show that the differentiation between the major types of presenile dementia can be achieved by a systematic rating of the clinical features.
Validity of clinical diagnosis in dementia: a prospective clinicopathological study.
With neuropathological diagnosis as the point of reference, the accuracy of clinical diagnosis was studied in a series of 58 demented patients, and the value of Hachinski's Ischaemic Score in differentiating between Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementias was demonstrated.
Multivariate analysis of Hachinski's Scale for discriminating senile dementia of the Alzheimer's Type from multiinfarct dementia.
This study is a cluster by case analysis of the data from Hachinski's original report that provides support for those clinicopathologic studies that have found Hachanski's ischemic score of value.
Criteria for the diagnosis of ischemic vascular dementia proposed by the State of California Alzheimer's Disease Diagnostic and Treatment Centers
Criteria for the diagnosis of ischemic vascular dementia (IVD) broaden the conceptualization of vascular dementia, include the results of neuroimaging studies, emphasize the importance of neuropathologic confirmation, refine nosology, and identify areas that require further research.
Clinical differentiation of primary degenerative and multi-infarct dementia: a critical review of the evidence. Part I: Clinical studies.
This critical analysis of representative clinical studies and articles published over the past two decades reveals important drawbacks in methodologic approaches and interpretation of data which seriously undermine confidence in making the clinical distinction between PDD and MID.
Pathological verification of ischemic score in differentiation of dementias
Fourteen case histories of persons who had a histological diagnosis of either senile dementia of the Alzheimer type, multiinfarct dementia, or a mixed dementia composed of these two types and who
Vascular dementia
These criteria for the diagnosis of vascular dementia are intended as a guide for case definition in neuroepidemiologic studies, stratified by levels of certainty (definite, probable, and possible).
Differential diagnosis between Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia: evaluation of common clinical methods
Quantitative neuropsychology, EEC, routine cerebrospinal fluid and other laboratory investigations, including serum glucose and plasma lipids, seem to be less valuable and ischemic scores seemed also to be useful in the differential diagnosis between AD and vascular dementia.