Habituation in Aplysia: The Cheshire Cat of neurobiology

@article{Glanzman2009HabituationIA,
  title={Habituation in Aplysia: The Cheshire Cat of neurobiology},
  author={David L. Glanzman},
  journal={Neurobiology of Learning and Memory},
  year={2009},
  volume={92},
  pages={147-154}
}
  • D. Glanzman
  • Published 2009
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
The marine snail, Aplysia californica, is a valuable model system for cell biological studies of learning and memory. Aplysia exhibits a reflexive withdrawal of its gill and siphon in response to weak or moderate tactile stimulation of its skin. Repeated tactile stimulation causes this defensive withdrawal reflex to habituate. Both short-term habituation, lasting < 30 min, and long-term habituation, which can last > 24h, have been reported in Aplysia. Habituation of the withdrawal reflex… Expand
Regulation of low-threshold afferent activity may contribute to short-term habituation in Aplysia californica
TLDR
It is concluded that regulation of low-threshold sensory neuron activity can play a significant role in short-term habituation, but other network processes may be recruited at more rapid training intervals. Expand
Isolation of sensory neurons of Aplysia californica for patch clamp recordings of glutamatergic currents.
TLDR
The protocol takes advantage of the easily identifiable glutamatergic sensory neurons of the pleural and buccal ganglia, and describes their dissociation and minimal maintenance in culture for several days without serum. Expand
Long-Term Habituation of the Gill-Withdrawal Reflex in Aplysia Requires Gene Transcription, Calcineurin and L-Type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels
TLDR
The present results indicate that exclusively presynaptic mechanisms, although possibly sufficient for short-term habituation, are insufficient for LTH, and rather, LTH must involve postsynaptic, as well as Presynaptic, mechanisms. Expand
Habituation in the Tail Withdrawal Reflex Circuit is Impaired During Aging in Aplysia californica
TLDR
Memory was impaired in advanced age animals compared to their performance at the peak of sexual maturity, with habituation training failing to attenuate the tail withdrawal response or to reduce tail motoneuron excitability, as occurred in peak maturity siblings. Expand
Transcriptional analysis of a whole-body form of long-term habituation in Aplysia californica.
TLDR
A computer-controlled brushing apparatus is constructed to apply low-intensity tactile stimulation over the entire dorsal surface of Aplysia at regular intervals and it is found that 3 d of training produces habituation with several characteristics favorable for mechanistic investigation. Expand
Plasticity of local GABAergic interneurons drives olfactory habituation
TLDR
Evidence that habituation arises from potentiation of inhibitory transmission within a circuit motif commonly repeated in the nervous system is presented and it is suggested that similar circuit mechanisms may operate in other species and sensory systems. Expand
Morphology, innervation, and peripheral sensory cells of the siphon of aplysia californica
TLDR
The observations emphasize the structural complexity of the peripheral nervous system of the siphon, and the importance of direct tests of the various components to better understand the functioning of the entire organ, including its role in defensive withdrawal responses. Expand
Olfactory habituation: Fresh insights from flies
  • D. Glanzman
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2011
TLDR
Two articles in PNAS by Ramaswami and colleagues contain important insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of olfactory habituation in Drosophila, insights likely to generalize to other forms of habituations in other species, including mammalian species. Expand
Central synaptic mechanisms underlie short-term olfactory habituation in Drosophila larvae.
TLDR
The observations suggest a model in which NMDAR-dependent depression of the OSN-PN synapse and/or NMDar-dependent facilitation of inhibitory transmission from LNs to PNs contributes substantially to short-term habituation. Expand
Network processes involved in the mediation of short-term habituation in Aplysia: contribution of intrinsic regulation of excitability and synaptic augmentation
TLDR
The results suggest that activity-dependent synaptic facilitation (augmentation; AUG) expressed by the L29s acts to compensate for the decreased activity in the untrained pathway, and support a role for the L 29s in regulating network dynamics during STH training, but only at rapid training intervals. Expand
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References

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Prolonged Habituation of the Gill-Withdrawal Reflex in Aplysia Depends on Protein Synthesis, Protein Phosphatase Activity, and Postsynaptic Glutamate Receptors
TLDR
The results indicate that postsynaptic mechanisms, possibly including modulation of glutamate receptor function, play a major, heretofore unsuspected, role in habituation in Aplysia. Expand
Neuronal Mechanisms of Habituation and Dishabituation of the Gill-Withdrawal Reflex in Aplysia
TLDR
Both habituation and dishabituation can be explained in part and perhaps entirely by changes in the efficacy of specific excitatory synapses. Expand
A quantal analysis of the synaptic depression underlying habituation of the gill-withdrawal reflex in Aplysia.
  • V. Castellucci, E. Kandel
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1974
TLDR
This work has applied a quantal analysis to synaptic transmission between the sensory and motor neurons of the gill-withdrawal reflex in Aplysia to indicate that short-term habituation results from a presynaptic mechanism: a decrease in the number of transmitter quanta released per impulse. Expand
Acquisition and Retention of Long-Term Habituation in Aplysia: Correlation of Behavioral and Cellular Processes
TLDR
A behaviorally meaningful stimulus sequence, consisting of only 40 patterned stimuli, leads to changes in synaptic effectiveness lasting one or more days in a neural pathway involved in short-term habituation of this reflex. Expand
Morphological basis of long-term habituation and sensitization in Aplysia.
TLDR
The morphological basis of the persistent synaptic plasticity that underlies long-term habituation and sensitization of the gill withdrawal reflex in Aplysia californica was explored by examining the fine structure of sensory neuron presynaptic terminals in control animals and in animals whose behavior had been modified by training. Expand
Cellular analysis of long-term habituation of the gill-withdrawal reflex of Aplysia californica.
TLDR
A critical synaptic site for plasticity underlying long-term habituation is the same as that for short-term Habituation, for which Aplysia californica is a good model. Expand
The Contribution of Facilitation of Monosynaptic PSPs to Dishabituation and Sensitization of the Aplysia Siphon Withdrawal Reflex
TLDR
A new simplified preparation for studying the siphon-withdrawal reflex of Aplysia is developed, providing the most direct evidence so far available that both dishabituation and sensitization involve multiple mechanisms, including heterosynaptic facilitation of sensory neuron-motor neuron PSPs. Expand
Habituation and Dishabituation of the GM-Withdrawal Reflex in Aplysia
A behavioral reflex mediated by identified motor neurons in the abdominal ganglion of Aplysia undergoes two simple forms of shortterm modification. When the gill-with-drawal reflex was repeatedlyExpand
Long-term habituation of a defensive withdrawal reflex in aplysia.
TLDR
Siphon withdrawal, studied in unrestrained animals, showed marked habituation within a single ten-trial training session, and spaced training produced significantly longer lasting habituation than massed training. Expand
Stimulus-response relations and stability of mechanoreceptor and motor neurons mediating defensive gill-withdrawal reflex in Aplysia.
TLDR
Study of the response properties of the sensory and motor neurons of the reflex during repeated stimulation at rates that produce habituation and the stability of the motor responses is described. Expand
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