Habituation and adaptation to odors in humans

  title={Habituation and adaptation to odors in humans},
  author={Robert Pellegrino and Charlotte Sinding and Rene de Wijk and Thomas Hummel},
  journal={Physiology \& Behavior},

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Odor habituation can modulate very early olfactory event-related potential
This study suggests that odor habituation can involve the olfactory ERP of odors within 200 ms in the brain, which correlated significantly with the results of the behavior test and electroencephalogram experiments.
Olfactory adaptation: recordings from the human olfactory epithelium
The results did not establish a clear peripheral adaptation measured with EOG but indicate the eventuality of such an effect, and the presence of EOG amplitude decreases over stimulations for few subjects suggests that peripheral adaptation might exist.
Retronasal Habituation: Characterization and Impact on Flavor Perception Using Time-Intensity
Evidence is provided that the authors habituate to different odors at different rates; more specifically, the findings of this study provide evidence that differentiates between odor origin and concentration.
The Mammalian Olfactory Bulb Contributes to the Adaptation of Odor Responses: A Second Perceptual Computation Carried Out by the Bulb
It is revealed that the sensory input from the nose provides a relatively stable representation of the odor environment, whereas robust adaptation occurred in the bulb output, which is the second perceptual calculation, done simultaneously, by the olfactory bulb.
Older and young adults experience similar long-term olfactory habituation.
It is highlighted that long-term habituation is specific to the odor exposed, behaves the same in young and older adults and is fully reversible in both age groups after one week.
The olfactory bulb contributes to the adaptation of odor responses: the input-output transformation
The results indicate that the mammalian Olfactory bulb participates in olfactory adaptation, with a decline in the output maps, while the input remained relatively stable.
Attentional modulation of desensitization to odor
Modulation of odor desensitization specifically by attentional factors is demonstrated for the first time, exemplifying the relevance of top-down control for ongoing perception of odor.
‘Sniff Olfactometer (SO) Protocols
SO protocols for threshold determinations of odorants in aqueous headspaces using odorant recognition probabilities associated with Log(odorant-concentrations) are described.
The Effect of Retronasal Odor Adaptation on Flavor Perception
In order to measure the effects of odor adaptation on flavor perception, a study involving the retronasal olfactory system was conducted on ten subjects. Each subject was exposed to an odor (lime,


Psychophysical and behavioral characteristics of olfactory adaptation.
  • P. Dalton
  • Biology, Psychology
    Chemical senses
  • 2000
Olfactory adaptation has been shown to be very long-lasting in some cases and may be modulated by the contribution of pre-neural events and physico-chemical properties of the odorant molecules that govern diffusion to receptor sites and post-receptor clearance.
New determinants of olfactory habituation
Results showed odorants differed significantly in habituation, highlighting the multifactoriality of habituation and the importance of trigeminality which is highly correlated to intensity and pleasantness.
Subjective olfactory desensitization and recovery in humans.
Olfactory Recovery was independent of the odorant used, indicating that olfactory recovery after complete desensitization may be a uniform process.
The nature and duration of adaptation following long-term odor exposure
Evidence is presented to show that reduced odor intensity following long-term exposure is accompanied by odorant-specific shifts in threshold, which distinguishes this phenomenon from the adaptation seen following shorter exposures and highlights the need for the study of exposure durations that are more similar to real-world exposures.
Olfactory cortical adaptation facilitates detection of odors against background.
The results suggest that the aPCX acts as a filter driven most strongly by changing stimuli, providing a potential mechanism for olfactory figure-ground separation and selective reading of Olfactory bulb output.
Synaptic adaptation and odor-background segmentation
Activation and Habituation in Olfaction—An fMRI Study
The correlated biphasic hemodynamic response in the POC, hippocampus, and anterior insula during prolonged olfactory stimulation suggests that these three areas may interact closely with each other in the control of habituation.
Sniffing controls an adaptive filter of sensory input to the olfactory bulb
An unexpected functional role for sniffing is suggested and sensory codes can be transformed by sampling behavior alone is shown, suggesting an adaptive filter for detecting changes in the odor landscape.