Habituation and Dishabituation of the GM-Withdrawal Reflex in Aplysia

@article{Pinsker1970HabituationAD,
  title={Habituation and Dishabituation of the GM-Withdrawal Reflex in Aplysia},
  author={Harold M. Pinsker and Irving Kupfermann and Vincent F. Castellucci and Eric R. Kandel},
  journal={Science},
  year={1970},
  volume={167},
  pages={1740 - 1742}
}
A behavioral reflex mediated by identified motor neurons in the abdominal ganglion of Aplysia undergoes two simple forms of shortterm modification. When the gill-with-drawal reflex was repeatedly evoked by a tactile stimulus to the siphon or mantle shelf, the amplitude of the response showed marked decrement (habituation). After a period of rest the response showed spontaneous recovery. The amplitude of a habituated response was facilitated by the presentation of a strong tactile stimulus to… 
Neuronal Correlates of Habituation and Dishabituation of the Gill-Withdrawal Reflex in Aplysia
TLDR
Habituation and dishabituation were not due to peripheral changes in either the sensory receptors or the gill musculature butt but were caused by changes in the amplitlude of the excitatory synaptic potentials produced at the gills motor neurons.
Habituation and Dishabituation in the Absence of a Central Nervous System
TLDR
Habituation and dishabituation have been observed in a semi-intact Aplysia preparation in which the central nervous system is removed, and habits and properties of peripheral neurons appear to be properties of these peripheral neurons.
Long-Term Habituation of a Defensive Withdrawal Reflex in Aplysia
TLDR
Siphon withdrawal, studied in unrestrained animals, showed marked habituation within a single ten-trial training session, and spaced training produced significantly longer lasting habituation than massed training.
Habituation and dishabituation mediated by the peripheral and central neural circuits of the siphon of Aplysia.
TLDR
The siphon withdrawal response evoked by a weak tactile (water drop) or light stimulus is mediated primarily by neurons in the siphon, indicating that the peripheral neural circuit in the isolated siphon can mediate habituation itself, and thus has many of the properties attributed to central neurons.
Habituation in Aplysia: The Cheshire Cat of neurobiology
  • D. Glanzman
  • Biology, Psychology
    Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
  • 2009
An analysis of dishabituation and sensitization of the gill-withdrawal reflex in Aplysia.
TLDR
It is found that the purple gland and siphon provide independent afferent pathways each capable of eliciting the gill-withdrawal reflex, which supports the idea that dishabituation is not due to the removal of habituation but is an independent facilitation superimposed upon habituation.
Habituation and Dishabituation: Interactions between Peripheral and Central Nervous Systems in Aplysia
The withdrawal response of the isolated siphon of Aplysia habituates to a light stimulus and dishabituates to a tactile stimulus, and vice versa, with or without connections to the central nervous
Habituation of reflexes in Aplysia: contribution of the peripheral and central nervous systems.
TLDR
Repeated electrical stimulation of two efferent nerves to the gill, after removal of the parietovisceral ganglion, resulted in habituation of withdrawal movements, which shows that the terminals of theganglion neurons in the gills are a site of habituation.
Habituation of mechanoreceptive interneurons in the crayfish.
TLDR
The effect of repetition of sensory stimuli was studied on the responses of mechanoreceptive interneurons in the optic tract of the crayfish, and the number of spikes recorded from a given unit gradually decreased during a train of stimuli.
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References

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Neuronal Correlates of Habituation and Dishabituation of the Gill-Withdrawal Reflex in Aplysia
TLDR
Habituation and dishabituation were not due to peripheral changes in either the sensory receptors or the gill musculature butt but were caused by changes in the amplitlude of the excitatory synaptic potentials produced at the gills motor neurons.
Neuronal Controls of a Behavioral Response Mediated by the Abdominal Ganglion of Aplysia
Tactile stimulation of the siphon and mantle shelf in Aplysia causes a characteristic withdrawal response of the external organs of the mantle cavity. A similar response also occurs spontaneously.
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An apparatus for cleaning and sterilizing objects, such as pharmaceutical caps, plugs and the like includes an autoclave chamber and a cleaning device having a cleaning drum mounted for a free