HYDRA: the kernel of a multiprocessor operating system

@article{Wulf1974HYDRATK,
  title={HYDRA: the kernel of a multiprocessor operating system},
  author={William A. Wulf and Ellis S. Cohen and William M. Corwin and Anita K. Jones and Roy Levin and C. Pierson and Fred J. Pollack},
  journal={Commun. ACM},
  year={1974},
  volume={17},
  pages={337-345}
}
This paper describes the design philosophy of HYDRA—the kernel of an operating system for C.mmp, the Carnegie-Mellon Multi-Mini-Processor. This philosophy is realized through the introduction of a generalized notion of “resource,” both physical and virtual, called an “object.” Mechanisms are presented for dealing with objects, including the creation of new types, specification of new operations applicable to a given type, sharing, and protection of any reference to a given object against… 
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