Diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) is a widely distributed phthalate, to which humans are exposed to due to its variety of commercial and manufacturing uses. As a plasticiser, it is found in a wide number of products, and metabolites of DEHP have been detected in urine samples from a high percentage of the people screened for phthalates. We utilised DNA microarray analysis to evaluate DEHP for gene expression disrupting activity using the human cell line MCF-7, and found that DEHP significantly dysregulated approximately 34% of the 2400 genes spotted on the NEN2400 chip we used. The results suggest that DEHP, a known estrogen agonist and probable androgen antagonist, alters the expression of a number of genes, many of which are critical for fetal development. Downregulation of two genes, FGD1 and PAFAH1B1, related in that both are essential for fetal brain development, was corroborated using quantitative real time PCR. These studies show DEHP to be a highly effective human gene expressionaltering chemical, and that, at appropriate concentrations, it has the possibility of altering fetal central nervous system development, resulting in the birth defects lissencephaly and/or faciodigitogenital dysplasia.