Simultaneous determination of melamine, ammelide, ammeline, and cyanuric acid in milk and milk products by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
The chlorinated salts of cyanuric acid have found an important role in recreational swimming pool waters across the United States. Upon application to pool water, they can (1) release disinfectant chlorine or (2) stabilize the free available chlorine by acting as chlorine reservoirs in the form of cyanuric acid, preventing the photolytic destruction of residual chlorine by sunlight. Recommended levels of the cyanuric acid stabilizer are in the 10-100 mg/L concentration range according to the National Swimming Pool Foundation (San Antonio, TX). Two isocratic HPLC methods with UV detection (213 nm) employing phenyl and porous graphitic carbon (PGC) columns and phosphate buffer eluents (pH 6.7 and pH 9.1, respectively) were developed to accurately measure cyanuric acid in swimming pools. The two methods allowed fast separation and detection of the stabilizer in 4 (phenyl) and 8 (PGC) min. Both methods offered practical sensitivities with method detection limits of 0.07 (phenyl) and 0.02 mg/L (PGC). Neither one of the two methods required the use of sample cleanup cartridges. They exhibit chromatograms with excellent baseline stability enabling low-level quantitation. Most important, the PGC column had a useful lifetime of five months and 500 sample analyses/column. Eleven pool water samples were fortified with 4.8-50.0 mg/L stabilizer, and the average recovery was 99.8%. Finally, statistical analysis on the relative precisions of the two methods indicated equivalence at the 0.05 critical level.