Pharmacokinetic scaling of epirubicin using allometric and species-invariant time methods
We investigated the pharmacokinetic characteristics of 11-hydroxyaclacinomycin X (ID-6105), a novel anthracycline, after intravenous (i.v.) bolus administration in rats and beagle dogs. We developed an HPLC-based method to analyze ID-6105 levels in plasma, bile, urine, feces, and tissue homogenates and validated the method in a pharmacokinetic study. The plasma concentration of ID-6105 decreased to below the quantifiable limit (0.02 microg/ml) at 4 and 8 h after i.v. administration in rats at doses of 2 and 10 mg/kg, respectively (t(1/2,alpha) and t(1/2,beta) of 0.78 and 17.8 min at a dose of 2 mg/kg, 0.91 and 176 min at a dose of 10 mg/kg, respectively). The AUC increased with nonlinear pharmacokinetics following the dosage increase from 2 to 10 mg/kg in rats, while the pharmacokinetics were not significantly altered in beagle dogs following a dosage increase from 0.5 to 2.5 mg/kg. Of the various tissues tested, ID-6105 was mainly distributed in the lung, spleen, kidney, adrenal gland, and liver after i.v. bolus administration. ID-6105 levels in the lung or kidney 2 h after i.v. bolus administration were comparable to the initial plasma concentration. However, the ID-6105 concentrations in various tissues 48 h after i.v. bolus administration became too small to measure. The cumulative amounts of ID-6105 found in the bile 48 h after the administration of 2 and 10 mg/kg were calculated to be 26.7 and 18.5% of the initial dose, respectively. The corresponding values in the urine 72 h after i.v. administration were 4.33 and 3.07% of the initial dose, suggesting that ID-6105 is mostly excreted in the bile. In conclusion, our observations indicate that ID-6105 was rapidly cleared from the blood and transferred to tissues such as the lung, spleen, kidney, and liver 2 h after i.v. bolus administration. Moreover, the majority of ID-6105 appears to be excreted in the bile by 24 h after i.v. bolus administration.