HOW LIZARDS TURN INTO SNAKES: A PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF BODY‐FORM EVOLUTION IN ANGUID LIZARDS

@article{Wiens2001HOWLT,
  title={HOW LIZARDS TURN INTO SNAKES: A PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF BODY‐FORM EVOLUTION IN ANGUID LIZARDS},
  author={John J. Wiens and Jamie L Slingluff},
  journal={Evolution},
  year={2001},
  volume={55}
}
Abstract One of the most striking morphological transformations in vertebrate evolution is the transition from a lizardlike body form to an elongate, limbless (snakelike) body form. Despite its dramatic nature, this transition has occurred repeatedly among closely related species (especially in squamate reptiles), making it an excellent system for studying macroevolutionary transformations in body plan. In this paper, we examine the evolution of body form in the lizard family Anguidae, a clade… 
Body-form Evolution in the Scincid Lizard Clade Lerista and the Mode of Macroevolutionary Transitions
TLDR
There is evidence for moderate dissociation of hind limb evolution in some lineages, while tail length has evolved effectively independently of the substantial alterations to the lengths of the body and limbs, indicating a significant role of evolutionary and developmental modularity in the divergence of body form within Lerista.
Rates and Patterns in the Evolution of Snake-Like Body Form in Squamate Reptiles: Evidence for Repeated Re-Evolution of Lost Digits and Long-Term Persistence of Intermediate Body Forms
TLDR
Using morphometric data for 258 species and a time-calibrated phylogeny to explore rates and patterns of body-form evolution across squamates, it is found that the transition from lizard-like to snake-like body form involves concerted evolution of limb reduction, digit loss, and body elongation.
Repeated evolution of limblessness and digging heads in worm lizards revealed by DNA from old bones
  • M. Kearney, B. Stuart
  • Biology, Medicine
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 2004
TLDR
A phylogenetic analysis of two nuclear genes obtained from both fresh tissues and museum specimens of worm lizards shows the limbless Rhineuridae to be the most basal lineage, whereas the limbed Bipedidae occupy a more derived position as the sister–taxon to a Trogonophidae–Amphisbaenidae clade.
WHY DOES A TRAIT EVOLVE MULTIPLE TIMES WITHIN A CLADE? REPEATED EVOLUTION OF SNAKELINE BODY FORM IN SQUAMATE REPTILES
Abstract Why does a trait evolve repeatedly within a clade? When examining the evolution of a trait, evolutionary biologists typically focus on the selective advantages it may confer and the genetic
WHY DOES A TRAIT EVOLVE MULTIPLE TIMES WITHIN A CLADE? REPEATED EVOLUTION OF SNAKELIKE BODY FORM IN SQUAMATE REPTILES
TLDR
The repeated origins of snakelike squamates appear to be associated with the in situ evolution of these two ecomorphs on different continental regions, with very little dispersal of most limb-reduced lineages between continental regions.
The convergent evolution of snake‐like forms by divergent evolutionary pathways in squamate reptiles *
TLDR
An important role of historical contingency as opposed to determinism is suggested in the convergent evolution of snake‐like body shapes in six clades of lizards, which showed that clades followed different evolutionary pathways.
A farewell to arms and legs: a review of limb reduction in squamates
TLDR
A comprehensive review on limb reduction is presented, in which the importance of investigating and comparing the internal morphology of limb‐reduced lizards in contrast to external morphology is emphasised, which will be the first step in gaining a deeper insight into body‐shape variation.
Shared extremes by ectotherms and endotherms: Body elongation in mustelids is associated with small size and reduced limbs
TLDR
The relationship between body elongation and forelimb length has not previously been quantitatively established for mammals but is consistent with trends exhibited by ectothermic vertebrates and suggests a common pattern of trait covariance associated with body shape evolution.
EVIDENCE FOR REPEATED ACQUISITION AND LOSS OF COMPLEX BODY‐FORM CHARACTERS IN AN INSULAR CLADE OF SOUTHEAST ASIAN SEMI‐FOSSORIAL SKINKS
TLDR
One of the most comprehensive, fine‐scale analyses of squamate body‐form evolution to date is provided, introducing a new model system of closely related, morphologically variable, lizards and revealing that species of the genus Brachymeles exemplify regions of morphospace (body plans) previously undocumented in squamates.
Locomotion and palaeoclimate explain the re-evolution of quadrupedal body form in Brachymeles lizards
TLDR
It is shown that large, quadrupedal species are faster at burying and surface locomotion than snake-like species, indicating a lack of expected performance trade-off between these modes of locomotion.
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