HNE increases HO-1 through activation of the ERK pathway in pulmonary epithelial cells.


Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a key cytoprotective enzyme and an established marker of oxidative stress. Increased HO-1 expression has been found in the resident macrophages in the alveolar spaces of smokers. The lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) is also increased in the bronchial and alveolar epithelium in response to cigarette smoke. This… (More)