HIV pathogenesis: 25 years of progress and persistent challenges

  title={HIV pathogenesis: 25 years of progress and persistent challenges},
  author={Jay A. Levy},
  • J. Levy
  • Published 14 January 2009
  • Medicine, Biology
  • AIDS
IntroductionIn 1981, a new disease syndrome appeared in human populations in the United States and elsewhere characterized by a deficiency in the immune system [1]. Patients presented with unusual infections and cancers such as Pneumocystis jiroveci (carinii) pneumonia and Kaposi's sarcoma. This 


The study addresses various aspects of the gastroenterological pathology combined with the HIV infection, including specific characteristics of the digestive system which play a key role in infecting, preserving HIV reservoirs, and HIV-caused disease progressing.


People suffering from HIV have differing needs depending on their personal circumstances and stage of infection, which with antiretroviral treatment may span several decades.

Embracing the complexity of HIV immunology

In this volume of Immunological Reviews, a series of articles by internationally recognized experts in the field describe the state of the art of numerous aspects of the complex immunology of HIV infection and AIDS.

25 years of HIV research! … and what about a vaccine?

  • V. Appay
  • Medicine
    European journal of immunology
  • 2009
This work states that identifying correlates of immune protection in humans, inducing effective immunity through immunization, and overcoming virus and host diversity represent the major obstacles in vaccine development.

The Impact of Helminths on HIV, Measles, and Tetanus-specific IgG Antibody Responses among HIV Co-infected Adults in Kenya

The Impact of Helminths on HIV, Measles, and Tetanus-specific IgG Antibody Responses among HIV Co-infected Adults in Kenya

To Review the Pathogenesis, traditional Treatment and Future Trends in the Diagnosis and Treatment of HIV Infections

The HIV infection has a major role in the human immunodeficiency syndrome and the main factor is the reduction of CD4 cells and increment in the growth of B-cells with hypergammaglobulinamia.

Attributes of Host's Genetic Factors in HIV-1 Pathogenesis

Research into HIV-1 biology is of paramount importance in order to investigate new targets for design and development of novel chemotherapeutics to inhibit not only the wild type virus but also the drug resistant variants.


HIV belongs to a large family of ribonucleic acid (RNA) lentiviruses. These viruses are characterized by association with diseases of immunosuppression or central nervous system involvement and with

Co-Infection with TB and HIV: Converging Epidemics, Clinical Challenges, and Microbial Synergy

This chapter summarizes the complex factors whereby TB and HIV converge to drive a global health emergency and discusses ongoing research and clinical efforts to reduce dual disease.

Macrophages: do they impact AIDS progression more than CD4 T cells?

  • M. Kuroda
  • Biology
    Journal of leukocyte biology
  • 2010
It is proposed that damage to CD4+ T cells is important and readily apparent, but damage to monocyte/macrophage lineage cells, although less obvious, may provide the missing link to predict the onset of opportunistic infections and progression to AIDS.



HIV superinfection.

The current understanding of HIV superinfection is reviewed, which has implications concerning the understanding of worldwide HIV diversity, individual immunity and disease progression, and vaccine development.

Out of Africa: what can we learn from HIV-2 about protective immunity to HIV-1?

Most people infected with human immunodeficiency virus 2 (HIV-2) do not progress to disease, even though the minority who do cannot be distinguished clinically from HIV-1-infected patients. Here we

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome in the United States: the first 1,000 cases.

Between June 1981 and February 1983, the Centers for Disease Control (Atlanta) received reports of 1,000 patients living in the United States who met a surveillance definition for the acquired immune

The immunopathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

The human immunodeficiency virus is probably the most intensively studied virus in the history of biomedical research, and many of the pathogenic mechanisms associated with HIV infection that lead to clinical disease have been established.

Genetic diversity of HIV in Africa: impact on diagnosis, treatment, vaccine development and trials

One of the major characteristics of lentiviruses is their extensive genetic variability which is the result of the high error rate the recombinogenic properties of the reverse transcriptase enzyme and the fast turnover of virions in HIV-infected individuals.

Immune responses in HIV-exposed seronegatives: have they repelled the virus?