HIV and Retroviruses

  title={HIV and Retroviruses},
  author={Mark M. Painter and Kathleen L. Collins},
  journal={Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences},
1 Citations




Intrinsic host restrictions to HIV-1 and mechanisms of viral escape

The biology of the restriction factors APOBEC3, SAMHD1 and tetherin and the viral accessory proteins that counteract them are discussed and the roles of the accessory proteins are revealed.

Integration site selection by retroviruses and transposable elements in eukaryotes

High-throughput profiling of integration sites by next-generation sequencing, combined with large-scale genomic data mining and cellular or biochemical approaches, has revealed that the insertions are usually non-random.

HIV-1 capsid: the multifaceted key player in HIV-1 infection

Understanding of the interactions between the viral capsid core and several cellular factors that enable efficient HIV-1 genome replication, timely core disassembly, nuclear import and the integration of the viral genome into the genome of the target cell are described.

Nuclear landscape of HIV-1 infection and integration

In resting CD4+ T cells, the viral genome can be silenced for long periods of time, which leads to the generation of a latent reservoir of quiescent integrated HIV-1 DNA, the only nuclear event in the viral life cycle that can be pharmacologically targeted with current therapies.

Standardized and simplified nomenclature for proteins common to all retroviruses

We propose a revised standardized nomenclature for the proteins common to all retroviruses on the basis of biological function, enzymatic activity, and/or virion location data. (We do not discuss