We examined incidence, prevalence, and correlates of HIV infection in Aboriginal peoples in Canada and found that among most risk groups both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants showed similar levels of HIV prevalence. Aboriginal peoples who use illicit drugs were found to have higher HIV incidence and prevalence when compared to their non-Aboriginal drug-using peers. Aboriginal street youth and female sex workers were also found to have higher HIV prevalence. Among Aboriginal populations, correlates of HIV-positive sero-status include syringe sharing and frequently injecting drugs, as well as geographic and social factors such as living in Vancouver or having a history of non-consensual sex. This study is relevant to Canada and elsewhere, as Indigenous populations are disproportionately represented in the HIV epidemic worldwide.