Discussing Childbearing with HIV-infected Women of Reproductive Age in Clinical Care: A Comparison of Brazil and the US
The aim of this study was to determine the rate and risk factors of HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), the timing of transmission and the transmitted subtype in a population where subtypes B and C co-circulate. One hundred and forty-four babies born to HIV-1-infected mothers were studied. Subtype and timing of transmission were determined by a nested polymerase chain reaction of the gp41 gene. Seven children were infected (4.9%): four were infected intrautero and one intrapartum. The higher frequency of intrautero transmission was statistically significant (P = 0.001). Use of antiretrovirals (ARVs) in the three stages of gestation was a protective risk factor for MTCT (PR = 0.42; CI: 0.21-0.83; P = 0.013). A higher HIV viral load at delivery was the only independent risk factor for MTCT. Early and universal access to ARVs during pregnancy are the most important measures to decrease vertical HIV-1 transmission even in areas where HIV clade distribution differs.