HIV-1 envelope protein binds to and signals through integrin α4β7, the gut mucosal homing receptor for peripheral T cells

@article{Arthos2008HIV1EP,
  title={HIV-1 envelope protein binds to and signals through integrin $\alpha$4$\beta$7, the gut mucosal homing receptor for peripheral T cells},
  author={James Arthos and Claudia Cicala and Elena Martinelli and Katilyn Macleod and Donald Van Ryk and Danlan Wei and Zhen Xiao and Timothy D. Veenstra and Thomas P. Conrad and Richard A. Lempicki and Sherry McLaughlin and Massimiliano Pascuccio and Ravindra Gopaul and Jonathan P. McNally and Catherine C Cruz and Nina M Censoplano and Eva Chung and Kristin N. Reitano and Shyam Kottilil and Diana J. Goode and Anthony S. Fauci},
  journal={Nature Immunology},
  year={2008},
  volume={9},
  pages={301-309}
}
Infection with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) results in the dissemination of virus to gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Subsequently, HIV-1 mediates massive depletion of gut CD4+ T cells, which contributes to HIV-1-induced immune dysfunction. The migration of lymphocytes to gut-associated lymphoid tissue is mediated by integrin α4β7. We demonstrate here that the HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 bound to an activated form of α4β7. This interaction was mediated by a tripeptide in the V2 loop… 

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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
Evidence indicates that infectious HIV-1 virions and many gp120s lack detectable α4β7 binding activity, suggesting that this homing receptor may play a limited role in direct HIV- 1 infection of cells.

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TLDR
The findings indicate that α4β7 may serve as an attachment factor at least for some HIV-1 strains, and provides a promising means for the investigation of other viral strains to understand the potential roles of α4 β7 in HIV- 1 infection.

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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
A model in which the F-actin depleted zone formed within the target CD4 T cell enhances the reception of virions by releasing the physical barrier for HIV-1 entry and facilitating post-entry events is proposed.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope gp120-Induced Partial T-Cell Receptor Signaling Creates an F-Actin-Depleted Zone in the Virological Synapse

TLDR
A model in which the F-actin-depleted zone formed within the target CD4 T cell enhances the reception of virions by releasing the physical barrier for HIV-1 entry and facilitating postentry events is proposed.

Integrin α4β7 Is Downregulated on the Surfaces of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmac239-Infected Cells

TLDR
Downregulation of integrin α4β7 may have an unappreciated role in the CD4 depletion of the mucosal-associated lymphoid compartments, susceptibility to superinfection, and/or immune evasion.
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