ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE Evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.) is a wild medicinal herb of Central American origin that is now globally widespread. Its traditional uses include treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and premenopausal pain both of which have an inflammatory component. The present study demonstrates the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of three Oenothera biennis compounds. MATERIALS AND METHODS Oenotheralanosterol A and B (Oen-A & Oen-B) along with gallic acid (GA) were isolated and characterized using column chromatography and NMR. The compounds were tested with LPS stimulated peritoneal mouse macrophages assaying for suppression of IL-6, TNF-α and NO synthesis. An HILIC method for the simultaneous quantitation of GA, Oen-A, and Oen-B in Oenothera biennis plant material was also developed as a means of monitoring quality of plant material. RESULTS Significant inhibition of TNF-α and IL-6 by GA, Oen-A and Oen-B was observed (p<0.05). Inhibition was concentration dependent and no synergistic or antagonistic effect on pro-inflammatory cytokines was found when used in combination (1:1) (p>0.05). The HILIC analysis method was validated using Oenothera biennis root. CONCLUSION The study demonstrates the anti-inflammatory activity of Oenothera biennis root compounds and supports its traditional use in arthritis management. Active anti-inflammatory compounds were identified and quantified by the HILIC method.