HFpEF: cardiovascular abnormalities not just comorbidities.

  title={HFpEF: cardiovascular abnormalities not just comorbidities.},
  author={William James Little and Michael R. Zile},
  journal={Circulation. Heart failure},
  volume={5 6},
T wenty-five years ago, the understanding of heart failure (HF) was straightforward. HF was a clinical syndrome due to left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction apparent as a reduced ejection fraction (EF). Based on this understanding , large randomized trials were conducted using an EF<0.30 or 0.35 as a key entry criterion. These studies demonstrated that the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, β-adrenergic blockers, aldosterone blockers, and cardiac resynchronization improved… CONTINUE READING
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